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there is, nevertheless, a difference in the manner in which the

thing takes place. It is by themselves changing that substances

admit contrary qualities. It is thus that that which was hot becomes

cold, for it has entered into a different state. Similarly that

which was white becomes black, and that which was bad good, by a

process of change; and in the same way in all other cases it is by

changing that substances are capable of admitting contrary

qualities. But statements and opinions themselves remain unaltered

in all respects: it is by the alteration in the facts of the case that

the contrary quality comes to be theirs. The statement 'he is sitting'

remains unaltered, but it is at one time true, at another false,

according to circumstances. What has been said of statements applies

also to opinions. Thus, in respect of the manner in which the thing

takes place, it is the peculiar mark of substance that it should be

capable of admitting contrary qualities; for it is by itself

changing that it does so.

If, then, a man should make this exception and contend that

statements and opinions are capable of admitting contrary qualities,

his contention is unsound. For statements and opinions are said to

have this capacity, not because they themselves undergo

modification, but because this modification occurs in the case of

something else. The truth or falsity of a statement depends on

facts, and not on any power on the part of the statement itself of

admitting contrary qualities. In short, there is nothing which can

alter the nature of statements and opinions. As, then, no change takes

place in themselves, these cannot be said to be capable of admitting

contrary qualities.

But it is by reason of the modification which takes place within the

substance itself that a substance is said to be capable of admitting

contrary qualities; for a substance admits within itself either

disease or health, whiteness or blackness. It is in this sense that it

is said to be capable of admitting contrary qualities.

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