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relative term that admits of variation of degree. No term such as

'double' admits of this modification. All relatives have correlatives:

by the term 'slave' we mean the slave of a master, by the term

'master', the master of a slave; by 'double', the double of its

hall; by 'half', the half of its double; by 'greater', greater than

that which is less; by 'less,' less than that which is greater.

So it is with every other relative term; but the case we use to

express the correlation differs in some instances. Thus, by

knowledge we mean knowledge the knowable; by the knowable, that

which is to be apprehended by knowledge; by perception, perception

of the perceptible; by the perceptible, that which is apprehended by


Sometimes, however, reciprocity of correlation does not appear to

exist. This comes about when a blunder is made, and that to which

the relative is related is not accurately stated. If a man states that

a wing is necessarily relative to a bird, the connexion between

these two will not be reciprocal, for it will not be possible to say

that a bird is a bird by reason of its wings. The reason is that the

original statement was inaccurate, for the wing is not said to be

relative to the bird qua bird, since many creatures besides birds have

wings, but qua winged creature. If, then, the statement is made

accurate, the connexion will be reciprocal, for we can speak of a

wing, having reference necessarily to a winged creature, and of a

winged creature as being such because of its wings.

Occasionally, perhaps, it is necessary to coin words, if no word

exists by which a correlation can adequately be explained. If we

define a rudder as necessarily having reference to a boat, our

definition will not be appropriate, for the rudder does not have

this reference to a boat qua boat, as there are boats which have no

rudders. Thus we cannot use the terms reciprocally, for the word

'boat' cannot be said to find its explanation in the word 'rudder'. As

there is no existing word, our definition would perhaps be more

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