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Whiteness and blackness, however, and the other colours, are not

said to be affective qualities in this sense, but -because they

themselves are the results of an affection. It is plain that many

changes of colour take place because of affections. When a man is

ashamed, he blushes; when he is afraid, he becomes pale, and so on. So

true is this, that when a man is by nature liable to such

affections, arising from some concomitance of elements in his

constitution, it is a probable inference that he has the corresponding

complexion of skin. For the same disposition of bodily elements, which

in the former instance was momentarily present in the case of an

access of shame, might be a result of a man's natural temperament,

so as to produce the corresponding colouring also as a natural

characteristic. All conditions, therefore, of this kind, if caused

by certain permanent and lasting affections, are called affective

qualities. For pallor and duskiness of complexion are called

qualities, inasmuch as we are said to be such and such in virtue of

them, not only if they originate in natural constitution, but also

if they come about through long disease or sunburn, and are

difficult to remove, or indeed remain throughout life. For in the same

way we are said to be such and such because of these.

Those conditions, however, which arise from causes which may

easily be rendered ineffective or speedily removed, are called, not

qualities, but affections: for we are not said to be such virtue of

them. The man who blushes through shame is not said to be a

constitutional blusher, nor is the man who becomes pale through fear

said to be constitutionally pale. He is said rather to have been


Thus such conditions are called affections, not qualities.

In like manner there are affective qualities and affections of the

soul. That temper with which a man is born and which has its origin in

certain deep-seated affections is called a quality. I mean such

conditions as insanity, irascibility, and so on: for people are said

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