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Action and affection both admit of contraries and also of

variation of degree. Heating is the contrary of cooling, being

heated of being cooled, being glad of being vexed. Thus they admit

of contraries. They also admit of variation of degree: for it is

possible to heat in a greater or less degree; also to be heated in a

greater or less degree. Thus action and affection also admit of

variation of degree. So much, then, is stated with regard to these


We spoke, moreover, of the category of position when we were dealing

with that of relation, and stated that such terms derived their

names from those of the corresponding attitudes.

As for the rest, time, place, state, since they are easily

intelligible, I say no more about them than was said at the beginning,

that in the category of state are included such states as 'shod',

'armed', in that of place 'in the Lyceum' and so on, as was

explained before.


The proposed categories have, then, been adequately dealt with.

We must next explain the various senses in which the term 'opposite'

is used. Things are said to be opposed in four senses: (i) as

correlatives to one another, (ii) as contraries to one another,

(iii) as privatives to positives, (iv) as affirmatives to negatives.

Let me sketch my meaning in outline. An instance of the use of the

word 'opposite' with reference to correlatives is afforded by the

expressions 'double' and 'half'; with reference to contraries by 'bad'

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