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in point of nature, the being of each of which involves that of the

other, while at the same time neither is the cause of the other's

being. This is the case with regard to the double and the half, for

these are reciprocally dependent, since, if there is a double, there

is also a half, and if there is a half, there is also a double,

while at the same time neither is the cause of the being of the other.

Again, those species which are distinguished one from another and

opposed one to another within the same genus are said to be

'simultaneous' in nature. I mean those species which are

distinguished each from each by one and the same method of division.

Thus the 'winged' species is simultaneous with the 'terrestrial' and

the 'water' species. These are distinguished within the same genus,

and are opposed each to each, for the genus 'animal' has the 'winged',

the 'terrestrial', and the 'water' species, and no one of these is

prior or posterior to another; on the contrary, all such things appear

to be 'simultaneous' in nature. Each of these also, the terrestrial,

the winged, and the water species, can be divided again into

subspecies. Those species, then, also will be 'simultaneous' point

of nature, which, belonging to the same genus, are distinguished

each from each by one and the same method of differentiation.

But genera are prior to species, for the sequence of their being

cannot be reversed. If there is the species 'water-animal', there will

be the genus 'animal', but granted the being of the genus 'animal', it

does not follow necessarily that there will be the species

'water-animal'.

Those things, therefore, are said to be 'simultaneous' in nature,

the being of each of which involves that of the other, while at the

same time neither is in any way the cause of the other's being;

those species, also, which are distinguished each from each and

opposed within the same genus. Those things, moreover, are

'simultaneous' in the unqualified sense of the word which come into

being at the same time.

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