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contrary; thus motion upwards is the contrary of motion downwards

and vice versa.

In the case of that sort of motion which yet remains, of those

that have been enumerated, it is not easy to state what is its

contrary. It appears to have no contrary, unless one should define the

contrary here also either as 'rest in its quality' or as 'change in

the direction of the contrary quality', just as we defined the

contrary of change of place either as rest in a place or as change

in the reverse direction. For a thing is altered when change of

quality takes place; therefore either rest in its quality or change in

the direction of the contrary may be called the contrary of this

qualitative form of motion. In this way becoming white is the contrary

of becoming black; there is alteration in the contrary direction,

since a change of a qualitative nature takes place.


The term 'to have' is used in various senses. In the first place

it is used with reference to habit or disposition or any other

quality, for we are said to 'have' a piece of knowledge or a virtue.

Then, again, it has reference to quantity, as, for instance, in the

case of a man's height; for he is said to 'have' a height of three

or four cubits. It is used, moreover, with regard to apparel, a man

being said to 'have' a coat or tunic; or in respect of something which

we have on a part of ourselves, as a ring on the hand: or in respect

of something which is a part of us, as hand or foot. The term refers

also to content, as in the case of a vessel and wheat, or of a jar and

wine; a jar is said to 'have' wine, and a corn-measure wheat. The

expression in such cases has reference to content. Or it refers to

that which has been acquired; we are said to 'have' a house or a

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