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History of Animals   

on analogy, or on contrasts of the accidental qualities.
To begin with, we must take into consideration the parts of
Man. For, just as each nation is wont to reckon by that monetary
standard with which it is most familiar, so must we do in other
matters. And, of course, man is the animal with which we are all of us
the most familiar.
Now the parts are obvious enough to physical perception. However,
with the view of observing due order and sequence and of combining
rational notions with physical perception, we shall proceed to
enumerate the parts: firstly, the organic, and afterwards the simple
or non-composite.

The chief parts into which the body as a whole is subdivided,
are the head, the neck, the trunk (extending from the neck to the
privy parts), which is called the thorax, two arms and two legs.
Of the parts of which the head is composed the hair-covered
portion is called the 'skull'. The front portion of it is termed
'bregma' or 'sinciput', developed after birth-for it is the last of
all the bones in the body to acquire solidity,-the hinder part is
termed the 'occiput', and the part intervening between the sinciput
and the occiput is the 'crown'. The brain lies underneath the
sinciput; the occiput is hollow. The skull consists entirely of thin
bone, rounded in shape, and contained within a wrapper of fleshless
The skull has sutures: one, of circular form, in the case of
women; in the case of men, as a general rule, three meeting at a
point. Instances have been known of a man's skull devoid of suture
altogether. In the skull the middle line, where the hair parts, is
called the crown or vertex. In some cases the parting is double;
that is to say, some men are double crowned, not in regard to the bony
skull, but in consequence of the double fall or set of the hair.

The part that lies under the skull is called the 'face': but in
the case of man only, for the term is not applied to a fish or to an
ox. In the face the part below the sinciput and between the eyes is
termed the forehead. When men have large foreheads, they are slow to
move; when they have small ones, they are fickle; when they have broad
ones, they are apt to be distraught; when they have foreheads
rounded or bulging out, they are quick-tempered.

Underneath the forehead are two eyebrows. Straight eyebrows are
a sign of softness of disposition; such as curve in towards the
nose, of harshness; such as curve out towards the temples, of humour
and dissimulation; such as are drawn in towards one another, of
Under the eyebrows come the eyes. These are naturally two in
number. Each of them has an upper and a lower eyelid, and the hairs on
the edges of these are termed 'eyelashes'. The central part of the eye
includes the moist part whereby vision is effected, termed the
'pupil', and the part surrounding it called the 'black'; the part
outside this is the 'white'. A part common to the upper and lower
eyelid is a pair of nicks or corners, one in the direction of the
nose, and the other in the direction of the temples. When these are
long they are a sign of bad disposition; if the side toward the
nostril be fleshy and comb-like, they are a sign of dishonesty.
All animals, as a general rule, are provided with eyes, excepting
the ostracoderms and other imperfect creatures; at all events, all
viviparous animals have eyes, with the exception of the mole. And
yet one might assert that, though the mole has not eyes in the full
sense, yet it has eyes in a kind of a way. For in point of absolute
fact it cannot see, and has no eyes visible externally; but when the

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