History of Animals
exhalation go right on from the nose towards the chest; and with the
nostrils alone and separately it is impossible to inhale or exhale,
owing to the fact that the inspiration and respiration take place from
the chest along the windpipe, and not by any portion connected with
the head; and indeed it is possible for a creature to live without
using this process of nasal respiration.
Again, smelling takes place by means of the nose,-smelling, or the
sensible discrimination of odour. And the nostril admits of easy
motion, and is not, like the ear, intrinsically immovable. A part of
it, composed of gristle, constitutes, a septum or partition, and
part is an open passage; for the nostril consists of two separate
channels. The nostril (or nose) of the elephant is long and strong,
and the animal uses it like a hand; for by means of this organ it
draws objects towards it, and takes hold of them, and introduces its
food into its mouth, whether liquid or dry food, and it is the only
living creature that does so.
Furthermore, there are two jaws; the front part of them
constitutes the chin, and the hinder part the cheek. All animals
move the lower jaw, with the exception of the river crocodile; this
creature moves the upper jaw only.
Next after the nose come two lips, composed of flesh, and
facile of motion. The mouth lies inside the jaws and lips. Parts of
the mouth are the roof or palate and the pharynx.
The part that is sensible of taste is the tongue. The sensation
has its seat at the tip of the tongue; if the object to be tasted be
placed on the flat surface of the organ, the taste is less sensibly
experienced. The tongue is sensitive in all other ways wherein flesh
in general is so: that is, it can appreciate hardness, or warmth and
cold, in any part of it, just as it can appreciate taste. The tongue
is sometimes broad, sometimes narrow, and sometimes of medium width;
the last kind is the best and the clearest in its discrimination of
taste. Moreover, the tongue is sometimes loosely hung, and sometimes
fastened: as in the case of those who mumble and who lisp.
The tongue consists of flesh, soft and spongy, and the so-called
'epiglottis' is a part of this organ.
That part of the mouth that splits into two bits is called the
'tonsils'; that part that splits into many bits, the 'gums'. Both
the tonsils and the gums are composed of flesh. In the gums are teeth,
composed of bone.
Inside the mouth is another part, shaped like a bunch of
grapes, a pillar streaked with veins. If this pillar gets relaxed
and inflamed it is called 'uvula' or 'bunch of grapes', and it then
has a tendency to bring about suffocation.
The neck is the part between the face and the trunk. Of this the
front part is the larynx land the back part the ur The front part,
composed of gristle, through which respiration and speech is effected,
is termed the 'windpipe'; the part that is fleshy is the oesophagus,
inside just in front of the chine. The part to the back of the neck is
the epomis, or 'shoulder-point'.
These then are the parts to be met with before you come to the
To the trunk there is a front part and a back part. Next after
the neck in the front part is the chest, with a pair of breasts. To
each of the breasts is attached a teat or nipple, through which in the
case of females the milk percolates; and the breast is of a spongy
texture. Milk, by the way, is found at times in the male; but with the
male the flesh of the breast is tough, with the female it is soft
Next after the thorax and in front comes the 'belly', and its root
the 'navel'. Underneath this root the bilateral part is the 'flank':