History of Animals
the undivided part below the navel, the 'abdomen', the extremity of
which is the region of the 'pubes'; above the navel the
'hypochondrium'; the cavity common to the hypochondrium and the
flank is the gut-cavity.
Serving as a brace girdle to the hinder parts is the pelvis,
and hence it gets its name (osphus), for it is symmetrical
(isophues) in appearance; of the fundament the part for resting on
is termed the 'rump', and the part whereon the thigh pivots is
termed the 'socket' (or acetabulum).
The 'womb' is a part peculiar to the female; and the 'penis' is
peculiar to the male. This latter organ is external and situated at
the extremity of the trunk; it is composed of two separate parts: of
which the extreme part is fleshy, does not alter in size, and is
called the glans; and round about it is a skin devoid of any
specific title, which integument if it be cut asunder never grows
together again, any more than does the jaw or the eyelid. And the
connexion between the latter and the glans is called the frenum. The
remaining part of the penis is composed of gristle; it is easily
susceptible of enlargement; and it protrudes and recedes in the
reverse directions to what is observable in the identical organ in
cats. Underneath the penis are two 'testicles', and the integument
of these is a skin that is termed the 'scrotum'.
Testicles are not identical with flesh, and are not altogether
diverse from it. But by and by we shall treat in an exhaustive way
regarding all such parts.
The privy part of the female is in character opposite to that of
the male. In other words, the part under the pubes is hollow or
receding, and not, like the male organ, protruding. Further, there
is an 'urethra' outside the womb; which organ serves as a passage
for the sperm of the male, and as an outlet for liquid excretion to
The part common to the neck and chest is the 'throat'; the
'armpit' is common to side, arm, and shoulder; and the 'groin' is
common to thigh and abdomen. The part inside the thigh and buttocks is
the 'perineum', and the part outside the thigh and buttocks is the
The front parts of the trunk have now been enumerated.
The part behind the chest is termed the 'back'.
Parts of the back are a pair of 'shoulderblades', the
'back-bone', and, underneath on a level with the belly in the trunk,
the 'loins'. Common to the upper and lower part of the trunk are the
'ribs', eight on either side, for as to the so-called seven-ribbed
Ligyans we have not received any trustworthy evidence.
Man, then, has an upper and a lower part, a front and a back
part, a right and a left side. Now the right and the left side are
pretty well alike in their parts and identical throughout, except that
the left side is the weaker of the two; but the back parts do not
resemble the front ones, neither do the lower ones the upper: only
that these upper and lower parts may be said to resemble one another
thus far, that, if the face be plump or meagre, the abdomen is plump
or meagre to correspond; and that the legs correspond to the arms, and
where the upper arm is short the thigh is usually short also, and
where the feet are small the hands are small correspondingly.
Of the limbs, one set, forming a pair, is 'arms'. To the arm
belong the 'shoulder', 'upper-arm', 'elbow', 'fore-arm', and 'hand'.
To the hand belong the 'palm', and the five 'fingers'. The part of the
finger that bends is termed 'knuckle', the part that is inflexible
is termed the 'phalanx'. The big finger or thumb is single-jointed,
the other fingers are double jointed. The bending both of the arm
and of the finger takes place from without inwards in all cases; and