History of Animals
the arm bends at the elbow. The inner part of the hand is termed the
palm', and is fleshy and divided by joints or lines: in the case of
long-lived people by one or two extending right across, in the case of
the short-lived by two, not so extending. The joint between hand and
arm is termed the 'wrist'. The outside or back of the hand is
sinewy, and has no specific designation.
There is another duplicate limb, the 'leg'. Of this limb the
double-knobbed part is termed the 'thigh-bone', the sliding part of
the 'kneecap', the double-boned part the 'leg'; the front part of this
latter is termed the 'shin', and the part behind it the 'calf',
wherein the flesh is sinewy and venous, in some cases drawn upwards
towards the hollow behind the knee, as in the case of people with
large hips, and in other cases drawn downwards. The lower extremity of
the shin is the 'ankle', duplicate in either leg. The part of the limb
that contains a multiplicity of bones is the 'foot'. The hinder part
of the foot is the 'heel'; at the front of it the divided part
consists of 'toes', five in number; the fleshy part underneath is
the 'ball'; the upper part or back of the foot is sinewy and has no
particular appellation; of the toe, one portion is the 'nail' and
another the 'joint', and the nail is in all cases at the extremity;
and toes are without exception single jointed. Men that have the
inside or sole of the foot clumsy and not arched, that is, that walk
resting on the entire under-surface of their feet, are prone to
roguery. The joint common to thigh and shin is the 'knee'.
These, then, are the parts common to the male and the female sex.
The relative position of the parts as to up and down, or to front
and back, or to right and left, all this as regards externals might
safely be left to mere ordinary perception. But for all that, we
must treat of them for the same reason as the one previously brought
forward; that is to say, we must refer to them in order that a due and
regular sequence may be observed in our exposition, and in order
that by the enumeration of these obvious facts due attention may be
subsequently given to those parts in men and other animals that are
diverse in any way from one another.
In man, above all other animals, the terms 'upper' and 'lower'
are used in harmony with their natural positions; for in him, upper
and lower have the same meaning as when they are applied to the
universe as a whole. In like manner the terms, 'in front', 'behind',
'right' and 'left', are used in accordance with their natural sense.
But in regard to other animals, in some cases these distinctions do
not exist, and in others they do so, but in a vague way. For instance,
the head with all animals is up and above in respect to their
bodies; but man alone, as has been said, has, in maturity, this part
uppermost in respect to the material universe.
Next after the head comes the neck, and then the chest and the
back: the one in front and the other behind. Next after these come the
belly, the loins, the sexual parts, and the haunches; then the thigh
and shin; and, lastly, the feet.
The legs bend frontwards, in the direction of actual progression,
and frontwards also lies that part of the foot which is the most
effective of motion, and the flexure of that part; but the heel lies
at the back, and the anklebones lie laterally, earwise. The arms are
situated to right and left, and bend inwards: so that the
convexities formed by bent arms and legs are practically face to
face with one another in the case of man.
As for the senses and for the organs of sensation, the eyes,
the nostrils, and the tongue, all alike are situated frontwards; the
sense of hearing, and the organ of hearing, the ear, is situated
sideways, on the same horizontal plane with the eyes. The eyes in
man are, in proportion to his size, nearer to one another than in
any other animal.
Of the senses man has the sense of touch more refined than any
animal, and so also, but in less degree, the sense of taste; in the
development of the other senses he is surpassed by a great number of