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History of Animals   

each of the two kidneys is attached a hollow sinewy vein, stretching
right along the spine through the narrows; by and by these veins are
lost in either loin, and again become visible extending to the
flank. And these off-branchings of the veins terminate in the bladder.
For the bladder lies at the extremity, and is held in position by
the ducts stretching from the kidneys, along the stalk that extends to
the urethra; and pretty well all round it is fastened by fine sinewy
membranes, that resemble to some extent the thoracic diaphragm. The
bladder in man is, proportionately to his size, tolerably large.
To the stalk of the bladder the private part is attached, the
external orifices coalescing; but a little lower down, one of the
openings communicates with the testicles and the other with the
bladder. The penis is gristly and sinewy in its texture. With it are
connected the testicles in male animals, and the properties of these
organs we shall discuss in our general account of the said organ.
All these organs are similar in the female; for there is no
difference in regard to the internal organs, except in respect to
the womb, and with reference to the appearance of this organ I must
refer the reader to diagrams in my 'Anatomy'. The womb, however, is
situated over the bowel, and the bladder lies over the womb. But we
must treat by and by in our pages of the womb of all female animals
viewed generally. For the wombs of all female animals are not
identical, neither do their local dispositions coincide.
These are the organs, internal and external, of man, and such
is their nature and such their local disposition.

Book II

With regard to animals in general, some parts or organs are
common to all, as has been said, and some are common only to
particular genera; the parts, moreover, are identical with or
different from one another on the lines already repeatedly laid
down. For as a general rule all animals that are generically
distinct have the majority of their parts or organs different in
form or species; and some of them they have only analogically
similar and diverse in kind or genus, while they have others that
are alike in kind but specifically diverse; and many parts or organs
exist in some animals, but not in others.
For instance, viviparous quadrupeds have all a head and a neck,
and all the parts or organs of the head, but they differ each from
other in the shapes of the parts. The lion has its neck composed of
one single bone instead of vertebrae; but, when dissected, the
animal is found in all internal characters to resemble the dog.
The quadrupedal vivipara instead of arms have forelegs. This is
true of all quadrupeds, but such of them as have toes have,
practically speaking, organs analogous to hands; at all events, they
use these fore-limbs for many purposes as hands. And they have the
limbs on the left-hand side less distinct from those on the right than
The fore-limbs then serve more or less the purpose of hands in
quadrupeds, with the exception of the elephant. This latter animal has
its toes somewhat indistinctly defined, and its front legs are much
bigger than its hinder ones; it is five-toed, and has short ankles
to its hind feet. But it has a nose such in properties and such in
size as to allow of its using the same for a hand. For it eats and
drinks by lifting up its food with the aid of this organ into its
mouth, and with the same organ it lifts up articles to the driver on
its back; with this organ it can pluck up trees by the roots, and when
walking through water it spouts the water up by means of it; and
this organ is capable of being crooked or coiled at the tip, but not
of flexing like a joint, for it is composed of gristle.
Of all animals man alone can learn to make equal use of both

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