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History of Animals   


case with the dog, the lion, and with all the saw-toothed animals;
other animals have small mouths, as man; and others have mouths of
medium capacity, as the pig and his congeners.
(The Egyptian hippopotamus has a mane like a horse, is
cloven-footed like an ox, and is snub-nosed. It has a huckle-bone like
cloven-footed animals, and tusks just visible; it has the tail of a
pig, the neigh of a horse, and the dimensions of an ass. The hide is
so thick that spears are made out of it. In its internal organs it
resembles the horse and the ass.)
8

Some animals share the properties of man and the quadrupeds, as
the ape, the monkey, and the baboon. The monkey is a tailed ape. The
baboon resembles the ape in form, only that it is bigger and stronger,
more like a dog in face, and is more savage in its habits, and its
teeth are more dog-like and more powerful.
Apes are hairy on the back in keeping with their quadrupedal
nature, and hairy on the belly in keeping with their human form-for,
as was said above, this characteristic is reversed in man and the
quadruped-only that the hair is coarse, so that the ape is thickly
coated both on the belly and on the back. Its face resembles that of
man in many respects; in other words, it has similar nostrils and
ears, and teeth like those of man, both front teeth and molars.
Further, whereas quadrupeds in general are not furnished with lashes
on one of the two eyelids, this creature has them on both, only very
thinly set, especially the under ones; in fact they are very
insignificant indeed. And we must bear in mind that all other
quadrupeds have no under eyelash at all.
The ape has also in its chest two teats upon poorly developed
breasts. It has also arms like man, only covered with hair, and it
bends these legs like man, with the convexities of both limbs facing
one another. In addition, it has hands and fingers and nails like man,
only that all these parts are somewhat more beast-like in
appearance. Its feet are exceptional in kind. That is, they are like
large hands, and the toes are like fingers, with the middle one the
longest of all, and the under part of the foot is like a hand except
for its length, and stretches out towards the extremities like the
palm of the hand; and this palm at the after end is unusually hard,
and in a clumsy obscure kind of way resembles a heel. The creature
uses its feet either as hands or feet, and doubles them up as one
doubles a fist. Its upper-arm and thigh are short in proportion to the
forearm and the shin. It has no projecting navel, but only a
hardness in the ordinary locality of the navel. Its upper part is much
larger than its lower part, as is the case with quadrupeds; in fact,
the proportion of the former to the latter is about as five to
three. Owing to this circumstance and to the fact that its feet
resemble hands and are composed in a manner of hand and of foot: of
foot in the heel extremity, of the hand in all else-for even the
toes have what is called a 'palm':-for these reasons the animal is
oftener to be found on all fours than upright. It has neither hips,
inasmuch as it is a quadruped, nor yet a tail, inasmuch as it is a
biped, except nor yet a tal by the way that it has a tail as small
as small can be, just a sort of indication of a tail. The genitals
of the female resemble those of the female in the human species; those
of the male are more like those of a dog than are those of a man.
9

The monkey, as has been observed, is furnished with a tail. In
all such creatures the internal organs are found under dissection to
correspond to those of man.
So much then for the properties of the organs of such animals
as bring forth their young into the world alive.
10

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