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History of Animals   


but for the most part they are covered with scales. Some few are
rough-skinned, while the smooth-skinned are very few indeed. Of the
Selachia some are rough-skinned and some smooth-skinned; and among the
smooth-skinned fishes are included the conger, the eel, and the tunny.
All fishes are saw-toothed excepting the scarus; and the teeth in
all cases are sharp and set in many rows, and in some cases are placed
on the tongue. The tongue is hard and spiny, and so firmly attached
that fishes in many instances seem to be devoid of the organ
altogether. The mouth in some cases is wide-stretched, as it is with
some viviparous quadrupeds....
With regard to organs of sense, all save eyes, fishes possess
none of them, neither the organs nor their passages, neither ears
nor nostrils; but all fishes are furnished with eyes, and the eyes
devoid of lids, though the eyes are not hard; with regard to the
organs connected with the other senses, hearing and smell, they are
devoid alike of the organs themselves and of passages indicative of
them.
Fishes without exception are supplied with blood. Some of them are
oviparous, and some viviparous; scaly fish are invariably oviparous,
but cartilaginous fishes are all viviparous, with the single exception
of the fishing-frog.
14

Of blooded animals there now remains the serpent genus. This genus
is common to both elements, for, while most species comprehended
therein are land animals, a small minority, to wit the aquatic
species, pass their lives in fresh water. There are also sea-serpents,
in shape to a great extent resembling their congeners of the land,
with this exception that the head in their case is somewhat like the
head of the conger; and there are several kinds of sea-serpent, and
the different kinds differ in colour; these animals are not found in
very deep water. Serpents, like fish, are devoid of feet.
There are also sea-scolopendras, resembling in shape their land
congeners, but somewhat less in regard to magnitude. These creatures
are found in the neighbourhood of rocks; as compared with their land
congeners they are redder in colour, are furnished with feet in
greater numbers and with legs of more delicate structure. And the same
remark applies to them as to the sea-serpents, that they are not found
in very deep water.
Of fishes whose habitat is in the vicinity of rocks there is a
tiny one, which some call the Echeneis, or 'ship-holder', and which is
by some people used as a charm to bring luck in affairs of law and
love. The creature is unfit for eating. Some people assert that it has
feet, but this is not the case: it appears, however, to be furnished
with feet from the fact that its fins resemble those organs.
So much, then, for the external parts of blooded animals, as
regards their numbers, their properties, and their relative
diversities.
15

As for the properties of the internal organs, these we must first
discuss in the case of the animals that are supplied with blood. For
the principal genera differ from the rest of animals, in that the
former are supplied with blood and the latter are not; and the
former include man, viviparous and oviparous quadrupeds, birds,
fishes, cetaceans, and all the others that come under no general
designation by reason of their not forming genera, but groups of which
simply the specific name is predicable, as when we say 'the
serpent,' the 'crocodile'.
All viviparous quadrupeds, then, are furnished with an oesophagus
and a windpipe, situated as in man; the same statement is applicable
to oviparous quadrupeds and to birds, only that the latter present
diversities in the shapes of these organs. As a general rule, all
animals that take up air and breathe it in and out are furnished

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