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History of Animals   

with a lung, a windpipe, and an oesophagus, with the windpipe and
oesophagus not admitting of diversity in situation but admitting of
diversity in properties, and with the lung admitting of diversity in
both these respects. Further, all blooded animals have a heart and a
diaphragm or midriff; but in small animals the existence of the latter
organ is not so obvious owing to its delicacy and minute size.
In regard to the heart there is an exceptional phenomenon
observable in oxen. In other words, there is one species of ox
where, though not in all cases, a bone is found inside the heart. And,
by the way, the horse's heart also has a bone inside it.
The genera referred to above are not in all cases furnished
with a lung: for instance, the fish is devoid of the organ, as is also
every animal furnished with gills. All blooded animals are furnished
with a liver. As a general rule blooded animals are furnished with a
spleen; but with the great majority of non-viviparous but oviparous
animals the spleen is so small as all but to escape observation; and
this is the case with almost all birds, as with the pigeon, the
kite, the falcon, the owl: in point of fact, the aegocephalus is
devoid of the organ altogether. With oviparous quadrupeds the case
is much the same as with the viviparous; that is to say, they also
have the spleen exceedingly minute, as the tortoise, the freshwater
tortoise, the toad, the lizard, the crocodile, and the frog.
Some animals have a gall-bladder close to the liver, and others
have not. Of viviparous quadrupeds the deer is without the organ, as
also the roe, the horse, the mule, the ass, the seal, and some kinds
of pigs. Of deer those that are called Achainae appear to have gall in
their tail, but what is so called does resemble gall in colour, though
it is not so completely fluid, and the organ internally resembles a
However, without any exception, stags are found to have maggots
living inside the head, and the habitat of these creatures is in the
hollow underneath the root of the tongue and in the neighbourhood of
the vertebra to which the head is attached. These creatures are as
large as the largest grubs; they grow all together in a cluster, and
they are usually about twenty in number.
Deer then, as has been observed, are without a gall-bladder;
their gut, however, is so bitter that even hounds refuse to eat it
unless the animal is exceptionally fat. With the elephant also the
liver is unfurnished with a gall-bladder, but when the animal is cut
in the region where the organ is found in animals furnished with it,
there oozes out a fluid resembling gall, in greater or less
quantities. Of animals that take in sea-water and are furnished with a
lung, the dolphin is unprovided with a gall-bladder. Birds and
fishes all have the organ, as also oviparous quadrupeds, all to a
greater or a lesser extent. But of fishes some have the organ close to
the liver, as the dogfishes, the sheat-fish, the rhine or
angel-fish, the smooth skate, the torpedo, and, of the lanky fishes,
the eel, the pipe-fish, and the hammer-headed shark. The
callionymus, also, has the gall-bladder close to the liver, and in
no other fish does the organ attain so great a relative size. Other
fishes have the organ close to the gut, attached to the liver by
certain extremely fine ducts. The bonito has the gall-bladder
stretched alongside the gut and equalling it in length, and often a
double fold of it. others have the organ in the region of the gut;
in some cases far off, in others near; as the fishing-frog, the elops,
the synagris, the muraena, and the sword-fish. Often animals of the
same species show this diversity of position; as, for instance, some
congers are found with the organ attached close to the liver, and
others with it detached from and below it. The case is much the same
with birds: that is, some have the gall-bladder close to the
stomach, and others close to the gut, as the pigeon, the raven, the
quail, the swallow, and the sparrow; some have it near at once to
the liver and to the stomach as the aegocephalus; others have it
near at once to the liver and the gut, as the falcon and the kite.

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