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History of Animals   

the stomach. Connected with this is the 'echinus' (or many-plies),
rough inside and laminated, and of about the same size as the
reticulum. Next after this comes what is called the 'enystrum' (or
abomasum), larger an longer than the echinus, furnished inside with
numerous folds or ridges, large and smooth. After all this comes the
Such is the stomach of those quadrupeds that are horned and have
an unsymmetrical dentition; and these animals differ one from
another in the shape and size of the parts, and in the fact of the
oesophagus reaching the stomach centralwise in some cases and sideways
in others. Animals that are furnished equally with teeth in both
jaws have one stomach; as man, the pig, the dog, the bear, the lion,
the wolf. (The Thos, by the by, has all its internal organs similar to
the wolf's.)
All these, then have a single stomach, and after that the gut;
but the stomach in some is comparatively large, as in the pig and
bear, and the stomach of the pig has a few smooth folds or ridges;
others have a much smaller stomach, not much bigger than the gut, as
the lion, the dog, and man. In the other animals the shape of the
stomach varies in the direction of one or other of those already
mentioned; that is, the stomach in some animals resembles that of
the pig; in others that of the dog, alike with the larger animals
and the smaller ones. In all these animals diversities occur in regard
to the size, the shape, the thickness or the thinness of the
stomach, and also in regard to the place where the oesophagus opens
into it.
There is also a difference in structure in the gut of the two
groups of animals above mentioned (those with unsymmetrical and
those with symmetrical dentition) in size, in thickness, and in
The intestines in those animals whose jaws are unequally
furnished with teeth are in all cases the larger, for the animals
themselves are larger than those in the other category; for very few
of them are small, and no single one of the horned animals is very
small. And some possess appendages (or caeca) to the gut, but no
animal that has not incisors in both jaws has a straight gut.
The elephant has a gut constricted into chambers, so constructed
that the animal appears to have four stomachs; in it the food is
found, but there is no distinct and separate receptacle. Its viscera
resemble those of the pig, only that the liver is four times the
size of that of the ox, and the other viscera in like proportion,
while the spleen is comparatively small.
Much the same may be predicated of the properties of the
stomach and the gut in oviparous quadrupeds, as in the land
tortoise, the turtle, the lizard, both crocodiles, and, in fact, in
all animals of the like kind; that is to say, their stomach is one and
simple, resembling in some cases that of the pig, and in other cases
that of the dog.
The serpent genus is similar and in almost all respects furnished
similarly to the saurians among land animals, if one could only
imagine these saurians to be increased in length and to be devoid of
legs. That is to say, the serpent is coated with tessellated scutes,
and resembles the saurian in its back and belly; only, by the way,
it has no testicles, but, like fishes, has two ducts converging into
one, and an ovary long and bifurcate. The rest of its internal
organs are identical with those of the saurians, except that, owing to
the narrowness and length of the animal, the viscera are
correspondingly narrow and elongated, so that they are apt to escape
recognition from the similarities in shape. Thus, the windpipe of
the creature is exceptionally long, and the oesophagus is longer
still, and the windpipe commences so close to the mouth that the
tongue appears to be underneath it; and the windpipe seems to
project over the tongue, owing to the fact that the tongue draws
back into a sheath and does not remain in its place as in other

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