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History of Animals   

in the kestrel. In the case of small birds like the swallow and the
sparrow neither the oesophagus nor the crop is wide, but the stomach
is long. Some few have neither a crop nor a dilated oesophagus, but
the latter is exceedingly long, as in long necked birds, such as the
porphyrio, and, by the way, in the case of all these birds the
excrement is unusually moist. The quail is exceptional in regard to
these organs, as compared with other birds; in other words, it has a
crop, and at the same time its oesophagus is wide and spacious in
front of the stomach, and the crop is at some distance, relatively
to its size, from the oesophagus at that part.
Further, in most birds, the gut is thin, and simple when loosened
out. The gut-appendages or caeca in birds, as has been observed, are
few in number, and are not situated high up, as in fishes, but low
down towards the extremity of the gut. Birds, then, have caeca-not
all, but the greater part of them, such as the barn-door cock, the
partridge, the duck, the night-raven, (the localus,) the ascalaphus,
the goose, the swan, the great bustard, and the owl. Some of the
little birds also have these appendages; but the caeca in their case
are exceedingly minute, as in the sparrow.

Book III

Now that we have stated the magnitudes, the properties, and the
relative differences of the other internal organs, it remains for us
to treat of the organs that contribute to generation. These organs
in the female are in all cases internal; in the male they present
numerous diversities.
In the blooded animals some males are altogether devoid of
testicles, and some have the organ but situated internally; and of
those males that have the organ internally situated, some have it
close to the loin in the neighbourhood of the kidney and others
close to the belly. Other males have the organ situated externally. In
the case of these last, the penis is in some cases attached to the
belly, whilst in others it is loosely suspended, as is the case also
with the testicles; and, in the cases where the penis is attached to
the belly, the attachment varies accordingly as the animal is
emprosthuretic or opisthuretic.
No fish is furnished with testicles, nor any other creature
that has gills, nor any serpent whatever: nor, in short, any animal
devoid of feet, save such only as are viviparous within themselves.
Birds are furnished with testicles, but these are internally situated,
close to the loin. The case is similar with oviparous quadrupeds, such
as the lizard, the tortoise and the crocodile; and among the
viviparous animals this peculiarity is found in the hedgehog. Others
among those creatures that have the organ internally situated have
it close to the belly, as is the case with the dolphin amongst animals
devoid of feet, and with the elephant among viviparous quadrupeds.
In other cases these organs are externally conspicuous.
We have already alluded to the diversities observed in the
attachment of these organs to the belly and the adjacent region; in
other words, we have stated that in some cases the testicles are
tightly fastened back, as in the pig and its allies, and that in
others they are freely suspended, as in man.
Fishes, then, are devoid of testicles, as has been stated, and
serpents also. They are furnished, however, with two ducts connected
with the midriff and running on to either side of the backbone,
coalescing into a single duct above the outlet of the residuum, and by
'above' the outlet I mean the region near to the spine. These ducts in
the rutting season get filled with the genital fluid, and, if the
ducts be squeezed, the sperm oozes out white in colour. As to the
differences observed in male fishes of diverse species, the reader
should consult my treatise on Anatomy, and the subject will be
hereafter more fully discussed when we describe the specific character

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