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History of Animals   


branches in the direction of the thumb and the other in the
direction of the palm; and from these run off a number of minute veins
branching off to the fingers and to all parts of the hand. Other
veins, more minute, extend from the main veins; from that on the right
towards the liver, from that on the left towards the spleen and the
kidneys. The veins that run to the legs split at the juncture of the
legs with the trunk and extend right down the thigh. The largest of
these goes down the thigh at the back of it, and can be discerned
and traced as a big one; the second one runs inside the thigh, not
quite as big as the one just mentioned. After this they pass on
along the knee to the shin and the foot (as the upper veins were
described as passing towards the hands), and arrive at the sole of the
foot, and from thence continue to the toes. Moreover, many delicate
veins separate off from the great veins towards the stomach and
towards the ribs.
'The veins that run through the throat to the head can be
discerned and traced in the neck as large ones; and from each one of
the two, where it terminates, there branch off a number of veins to
the head; some from the right side towards the left, and some from the
left side towards the right; and the two veins terminate near to
each of the two ears. There is another pair of veins in the neck
running along the big vein on either side, slightly less in size
than the pair just spoken of, and with these the greater part of the
veins in the head are connected. This other pair runs through the
throat inside; and from either one of the two there extend veins in
underneath the shoulder blade and towards the hands; and these
appear alongside the veins splenitis and hepatitis as another pair
of veins smaller in size. When there is a pain near the surface of the
body, the physician lances these two latter veins; but when the pain
is within and in the region of the stomach he lances the veins
splenitis and hepatitis. And from these, other veins depart to run
below the breasts.
'There is also another pair running on each side through the
spinal marrow to the testicles, thin and delicate. There is,
further, a pair running a little underneath the cuticle through the
flesh to the kidneys, and these with men terminate at the testicle,
and with women at the womb. These veins are termed the spermatic
veins. The veins that leave the stomach are comparatively broad just
as they leave; but they become gradually thinner, until they change
over from right to left and from left to right.
'Blood is thickest when it is imbibed by the fleshy parts; when
it is transmitted to the organs above-mentioned, it becomes thin,
warm, and frothy.'
3

Such are the accounts given by Syennesis and Diogenes. Polybus
writes to the following effect:-
'There are four pairs of veins. The first extends from the back of
the head, through the neck on the outside, past the backbone on either
side, until it reaches the loins and passes on to the legs, after
which it goes on through the shins to the outer side of the ankles and
on to the feet. And it is on this account that surgeons, for pains
in the back and loin, bleed in the ham and in the outer side of the
ankle. Another pair of veins runs from the head, past ears, through
the neck; which veins are termed the jugular veins. This pair goes
on inside along the backbone, past the muscles of the loins, on to the
testicles, and onwards to the thighs, and through the inside of the
hams and through the shins down to the inside of the ankles and to the
feet; and for this reason, surgeons, for pains in the muscles of the
loins and in the testicles, bleed on the hams and the inner side of
the ankles. The third pair extends from the temples, through the neck,
in underneath the shoulder-blades, into the lung; those from right
to left going in underneath the breast and on to the spleen and the
kidney; those from left to right running from the lung in underneath

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