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History of Animals   


the blood of these animals does not coagulate to the extent observed
in the blood of other animals. The blood of the deer coagulates to
about the same extent as that of the hare: that is to the blood in
either case coagulates, but not into a stiff or jelly-like
substance, like the blood of ordinary animals, but only into a flaccid
consistency like that of milk which is not subjected to the action
of rennet. The blood of the antelope admits of a firmer consistency in
coagulation; for in this respect it resembles, or only comes a
little short of, the blood of sheep. Such are the properties of
vein, sinew, and fibrous tissue.
7

The bones in animals are all connected with one single bone, and
are interconnected, like the veins, in one unbroken sequence; and
there is no instance of a bone standing apart by itself. In all
animals furnished with bones, the spine or backbone is the point of
origin for the entire osseous system. The spine is composed of
vertebrae, and it extends from the head down to the loins. The
vertebrae are all perforated, and, above, the bony portion of the head
is connected with the topmost vertebrae, and is designated the
'skull'. And the serrated lines on the skull are termed 'sutures'.
The skull is not formed alike in all animals. In some animals
the skull consists of one single undivided bone, as in the case of the
dog; in others it is composite in structure, as in man; and in the
human species the suture is circular in the female, while in the
male it is made up of three separate sutures, uniting above in
three-corner fashion; and instances have been known of a man's skull
being devoid of suture altogether. The skull is composed not of four
bones, but of six; two of these are in the region of the ears, small
in comparison with the other four. From the skull extend the jaws,
constituted of bone. (Animals in general move the lower jaw; the river
crocodile is the only animal that moves the upper one.) In the jaws is
the tooth-system; and the teeth are constituted of bone, and are
half-way perforated; and the bone in question is the only kind of bone
which it is found impossible to grave with a graving tool.
On the upper part of the course of the backbone are the
collar-bones and the ribs. The chest rests on ribs; and these ribs
meet together, whereas the others do not; for no animal has bone in
the region of the stomach. Then come the shoulder-bones, or
blade-bones, and the arm-bones connected with these, and the bones
in the hands connected with the bones of the arms. With animals that
have forelegs, the osseous system of the foreleg resembles that of the
arm in man.
Below the level of the backbone, after the haunch-bone, comes
the hip-socket; then the leg-bones, those in the thighs and those in
the shins, which are termed colenes or limb-bones, a part of which
is the ankle, while a part of the same is the so-called 'plectrum'
in those creatures that have an ankle; and connected with these
bones are the bones in the feet.
Now, with all animals that are supplied with blood and furnished
with feet, and are at the same time viviparous, the bones do not
differ greatly one from another, but only in the way of relative
hardness, softness, or magnitude. A further difference, by the way, is
that in one and the same animal certain bones are supplied with
marrow, while others are destitute of it. Some animals might on casual
observation appear to have no marrow whatsoever in their bones: as
is the case with the lion, owing to his having marrow only in small
amount, poor and thin, and in very few bones; for marrow is found in
his thigh and armbones. The bones of the lion are exceptionally
hard; so hard, in fact, that if they are rubbed hard against one
another they emit sparks like flint-stones. The dolphin has bones, and
not fish-spine.
Of the other animals supplied with blood, some differ but
little, as is the case with birds; others have systems analogous, as

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