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History of Animals   

exude through the pores like sweat. In some cases blood, when
issuing from the veins, does not coagulate at all, or only here and
there. Whilst animals are sleeping the blood is less abundantly
supplied near the exterior surfaces, so that, if the sleeping creature
be pricked with a pin, the blood does not issue as copiously as it
would if the creature were awake. Blood is developed out of ichor by
coction, and fat in like manner out of blood. If the blood get
diseased, haemorrhoids may ensue in the nostril or at the anus, or the
veins may become varicose. Blood, if it corrupt in the body, has a
tendency to turn into pus, and pus may turn into a solid concretion.
Blood in the female differs from that in the male, for,
supposing the male and female to be on a par as regards age and
general health, the blood in the female is thicker and blacker than in
the male; and with the female there is a comparative superabundance of
it in the interior. Of all female animals the female in man is the
most richly supplied with blood, and of all female animals the
menstruous discharges are the most copious in woman. The blood of
these discharges under disease turns into flux. Apart from the
menstrual discharges, the female in the human species is less
subject to diseases of the blood than the male.
Women are seldom afflicted with varicose veins, with haemorrhoids,
or with bleeding at the nose, and, if any of these maladies supervene,
the menses are imperfectly discharged.
Blood differs in quantity and appearance according to age; in very
young animals it resembles ichor and is abundant, in the old it is
thick and black and scarce, and in middle-aged animals its qualities
are intermediate. In old animals the blood coagulates rapidly, even
blood at the surface of the body; but this is not the case with
young animals. Ichor is, in fact, nothing else but unconcocted
blood: either blood that has not yet been concocted, or that has
become fluid again.

We now proceed to discuss the properties of marrow; for this is
one of the liquids found in certain sanguineous animals. All the
natural liquids of the body are contained in vessels: as blood in
veins, marrow in bones other moistures in membranous structures of the
In young animals the marrow is exceedingly sanguineous, but, as
animals grow old, it becomes fatty in animals supplied with fat, and
suet-like in animals with suet. All bones, however, are not supplied
with marrow, but only the hollow ones, and not all of these. For of
the bones in the lion some contain no marrow at all, and some are only
scantily supplied therewith; and that accounts, as was previously
observed, for the statement made by certain writers that the lion is
marrowless. In the bones of pigs it is found in small quantities;
and in the bones of certain animals of this species it is not found at
These liquids, then, are nearly always congenital in animals,
but milk and sperm come at a later time. Of these latter, that
which, whensoever it is present, is secreted in all cases
ready-made, is the milk; sperm, on the other hand, is not secreted out
in all cases, but in some only, as in the case of what are
designated thori in fishes.
Whatever animals have milk, have it in their breasts. All
animals have breasts that are internally and externally viviparous, as
for instance all animals that have hair, as man and the horse; and the
cetaceans, as the dolphin, the porpoise, and the whale-for these
animals have breasts and are supplied with milk. Animals that are
oviparous or only externally viviparous have neither breasts nor milk,
as the fish and the bird.
All milk is composed of a watery serum called 'whey', and a
consistent substance called curd (or cheese); and the thicker the
milk, the more abundant the curd. The milk, then, of non-ambidentals

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