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History of Animals   

in dissection is found to be sallow-coloured within. From the mouth
there runs a single passage right on to the stomach, but the passage
for the excretions is not discernible. The legs and the thorax are
hard, but not so hard as the legs and the thorax of the crab. It
does not adhere to its shell like the purple murex and the ceryx,
but can easily slip out of it. It is longer when found in the shell of
the stromboids than when found in the shell of the neritae.
And, by the way, the animal found in the shell of the neritae is a
separate species, like to the other in most respects; but of its
bifurcate feet or claws, the right-hand one is small and the left-hand
one is large, and it progresses chiefly by the aid of this latter
and larger one. (In the shells of these animals, and in certain
others, there is found a parasite whose mode of attachment is similar.
The particular one which we have just described is named the
The nerites has a smooth large round shell, and resembles the
ceryx in shape, only the poppy-juice is, in its case, not black but
red. It clings with great force near the middle. In calm weather,
then, they go free afield, but when the wind blows the carcinia take
shelter against the rocks: the neritae themselves cling fast like
limpets; and the same is the case with the haemorrhoid or aporrhaid
and all others of the like kind. And, by the way, they cling to the
rock, when they turn back their operculum, for this operculum seems
like a lid; in fact this structure represents the one part, in the
stromboids, of that which in the bivalves is a duplicate shell. The
interior of the animal is fleshy, and the mouth is inside. And it is
the same with the haemorrhoid, the purple murex, and all suchlike
Such of the little crabs as have the left foot or claw the
bigger of the two are found in the neritae, but not in the stromboids.
are some snail-shells which have inside them creatures resembling
those little crayfish that are also found in fresh water. These
creatures, however, differ in having the part inside the shells But as
to the characters, you are referred to my Treatise on Anatomy.

The urchins are devoid of flesh, and this is a character
peculiar to them; and while they are in all cases empty and devoid
of any flesh within, they are in all cases furnished with the black
formations. There are several species of the urchin, and one of
these is that which is made use of for food; this is the kind in which
are found the so-called eggs, large and edible, in the larger and
smaller specimens alike; for even when as yet very small they are
provided with them. There are two other species, the spatangus, and
the so-called bryssus, these animals are pelagic and scarce.
Further, there are the echinometrae, or 'mother-urchins', the
largest in size of all the species. In addition to these there is
another species, small in size, but furnished with large hard
spines; it lives in the sea at a depth of several fathoms; and is used
by some people as a specific for cases of strangury. In the
neighbourhood of Torone there are sea-urchins of a white colour,
shells, spines, eggs and all, and that are longer than the ordinary
sea-urchin. The spine in this species is not large nor strong, but
rather limp; and the black formations in connexion with the mouth
are more than usually numerous, and communicate with the external
duct, but not with one another; in point of fact, the animal is in a
manner divided up by them. The edible urchin moves with greatest
freedom and most often; and this is indicated by the fact that these
urchins have always something or other on their spines.
All urchins are supplied with eggs, but in some of the species the
eggs are exceedingly small and unfit for food. Singularly enough,
the urchin has what we may call its head and mouth down below, and a
place for the issue of the residuum up above; (and this same
property is common to all stromboids and to limpets). For the food

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