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History of Animals   

Again, some insects have antennae in front of their eyes, as the
butterfly and the horned beetle. Such of them as have the power of
jumping have the hinder legs the longer; and these long hind-legs
whereby they jump bend backwards like the hind-legs of quadrupeds. All
insects have the belly different from the back; as, in fact, is the
case with all animals. The flesh of an insect's body is neither
shell-like nor is it like the internal substance of shell-covered
animals, nor is it like flesh in the ordinary sense of the term; but
it is a something intermediate in quality. Wherefore they have nor
spine, nor bone, nor sepia-bone, nor enveloping shell; but their
body by its hardness is its own protection and requires no
extraneous support. However, insects have a skin; but the skin is
exceedingly thin. These and such-like are the external organs of
Internally, next after the mouth, comes a gut, in the majority
of cases straight and simple down to the outlet of the residuum: but
in a few cases the gut is coiled. No insect is provided with any
viscera, or is supplied with fat; and these statements apply to all
animals devoid of blood. Some have a stomach also, and attached to
this the rest of the gut, either simple or convoluted as in the case
of the acris or grasshopper.
The tettix or cicada, alone of such creatures (and, in fact, alone
of all creatures), is unprovided with a mouth, but it is provided with
the tongue-like formation found in insects furnished with frontward
stings; and this formation in the cicada is long, continuous, and
devoid of any split; and by the aid of this the creature feeds on dew,
and on dew only, and in its stomach no excretion is ever found. Of the
cicada there are several kinds, and they differ from one another in
relative magnitude, and in this respect that the achetes or chirper is
provided with a cleft or aperture under the hypozoma and has in it a
membrane quite discernible, whilst the membrane is indiscernible in
the tettigonia.
Furthermore, there are some strange creatures to be found in the
sea, which from their rarity we are unable to classify. Experienced
fishermen affirm, some that they have at times seen in the sea animals
like sticks, black, rounded, and of the same thickness throughout;
others that they have seen creatures resembling shields, red in
colour, and furnished with fins packed close together; and others that
they have seen creatures resembling the male organ in shape and
size, with a pair of fins in the place of the testicles, and they aver
that on one occasion a creature of this description was brought up
on the end of a nightline.
So much then for the parts, external and internal, exceptional and
common, of all animals.

We now proceed to treat of the senses; for there are diversities
in animals with regard to the senses, seeing that some animals have
the use of all the senses, and others the use of a limited number of
them. The total number of the senses (for we have no experience of any
special sense not here included), is five: sight, hearing, smell,
taste, and touch.
Man, then, and all vivipara that have feet, and, further, all
red-blooded ovipara, appear to have the use of all the five senses,
except where some isolated species has been subjected to mutilation,
as in the case of the mole. For this animal is deprived of sight; it
has no eyes visible, but if the skin-a thick one, by the way-be
stripped off the head, about the place in the exterior where eyes
usually are, the eyes are found inside in a stunted condition,
furnished with all the parts found in ordinary eyes; that is to say,
we find there the black rim, and the fatty part surrounding it; but
all these parts are smaller than the same parts in ordinary visible
eyes. There is no external sign of the existence of these organs in
the mole, owing to the thickness of the skin drawn over them, so

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