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History of Animals   


keep up a quiet flapping of their fins; indeed, some mariners assure
us that they have actually heard the dolphin snoring.
Molluscs sleep like fishes, and crustaceans also. It is plain also
that insects sleep; for there can be no mistaking their condition of
motionless repose. In the bee the fact of its being asleep is very
obvious; for at night-time bees are at rest and cease to hum. But
the fact that insects sleep may be very well seen in the case of
common every-day creatures; for not only do they rest at night-time
from dimness of vision (and, by the way, all hard-eyed creatures see
but indistinctly), but even if a lighted candle be presented they
continue sleeping quite as soundly.
Of all animals man is most given to dreaming. Children and infants
do not dream, but in most cases dreaming comes on at the age of four
or five years. Instances have been known of full-grown men and women
that have never dreamed at all; in exceptional cases of this kind,
it has been observed that when a dream occurs in advanced life it
prognosticates either actual dissolution or a general break-up of
the system.
So much then for sensation and for the phenomena of sleeping and
of awakening.
11

With regard to sex, some animals are divided into male and female,
but others are not so divided but can only be said in a comparative
way to bring forth young and to be pregnant. In animals that live
confined to one spot there is no duality of sex; nor is there such, in
fact, in any testaceans. In molluscs and in crustaceans we find male
and female: and, indeed, in all animals furnished with feet, biped
or quadruped; in short, in all such as by copulation engender either
live young or egg or grub. In the several genera, with however certain
exceptions, there either absolutely is or absolutely is not a
duality of sex. Thus, in quadrupeds the duality is universal, while
the absence of such duality is universal in testaceans, and of these
creatures, as with plants, some individuals are fruitful and some
are not their lying still
But among insects and fishes, some cases are found wholly devoid
of this duality of sex. For instance, the eel is neither male nor
female, and can engender nothing. In fact, those who assert that
eels are at times found with hair-like or worm-like progeny
attached, make only random assertions from not having carefully
noticed the locality of such attachments. For no eel nor animal of
this kind is ever viviparous unless previously oviparous; and no eel
was ever yet seen with an egg. And animals that are viviparous have
their young in the womb and closely attached, and not in the belly;
for, if the embryo were kept in the belly, it would be subjected to
the process of digestion like ordinary food. When people rest
duality of sex in the eel on the assertion that the head of the male
is bigger and longer, and the head of the female smaller and more
snubbed, they are taking diversity of species for diversity of sex.
There are certain fish that are nicknamed the epitragiae, or
capon-fish, and, by the way, fish of this description are found in
fresh water, as the carp and the balagrus. This sort of fish never has
either roe or milt; but they are hard and fat all over, and are
furnished with a small gut; and these fish are regarded as of
super-excellent quality.
Again, just as in testaceans and in plants there is what bears and
engenders, but not what impregnates, so is it, among fishes, with
the psetta, the erythrinus, and the channe; for these fish are in
all cases found furnished with eggs.
As a general rule, in red-blooded animals furnished with feet
and not oviparous, the male is larger and longer-lived than the female
(except with the mule, where the female is longer-lived and bigger
than the male); whereas in oviparous and vermiparous creatures, as
in fishes and in insects, the female is larger than the male; as,

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