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History of Animals   

for instance, with the serpent, the phalangium or venom-spider, the
gecko, and the frog. The same difference in size of the sexes is found
in fishes, as, for instance, in the smaller cartilaginous fishes, in
the greater part of the gregarious species, and in all that live in
and about rocks. The fact that the female is longer-lived than the
male is inferred from the fact that female fishes are caught older
than males. Furthermore, in all animals the upper and front parts
are better, stronger, and more thoroughly equipped in the male than in
the female, whereas in the female those parts are the better that
may be termed hinder-parts or underparts. And this statement is
applicable to man and to all vivipara that have feet. Again, the
female is less muscular and less compactly jointed, and more thin
and delicate in the hair-that is, where hair is found; and, where
there is no hair, less strongly furnished in some analogous substance.
And the female is more flaccid in texture of flesh, and more
knock-kneed, and the shin-bones are thinner; and the feet are more
arched and hollow in such animals as are furnished with feet. And with
regard to voice, the female in all animals that are vocal has a
thinner and sharper voice than the male; except, by the way, with
kine, for the lowing and bellowing of the cow has a deeper note than
that of the bull. With regard to organs of defence and offence, such
as teeth, tusks, horns, spurs, and the like, these in some species the
male possesses and the female does not; as, for instance, the hind has
no horns, and where the cock-bird has a spur the hen is entirely
destitute of the organ; and in like manner the sow is devoid of tusks.
In other species such organs are found in both sexes, but are more
perfectly developed in the male; as, for instance, the horn of the
bull is more powerful than the horn of the cow.

Book V

As to the parts internal and external that all animals are
furnished withal, and further as to the senses, to voice, and sleep,
and the duality sex, all these topics have now been touched upon. It
now remains for us to discuss, duly and in order, their several
modes of propagation.
These modes are many and diverse, and in some respects are like,
and in other respects are unlike to one another. As we carried on
our previous discussion genus by genus, so we must attempt to follow
the same divisions in our present argument; only that whereas in the
former case we started with a consideration of the parts of man, in
the present case it behoves us to treat of man last of all because
he involves most discussion. We shall commence, then, with testaceans,
and then proceed to crustaceans, and then to the other genera in due
order; and these other genera are, severally, molluscs, and insects,
then fishes viviparous and fishes oviparous, and next birds; and
afterwards we shall treat of animals provided with feet, both such
as are oviparous and such as are viviparous, and we may observe that
some quadrupeds are viviparous, but that the only viviparous biped
is man.
Now there is one property that animals are found to have in common
with plants. For some plants are generated from the seed of plants,
whilst other plants are self-generated through the formation of some
elemental principle similar to a seed; and of these latter plants some
derive their nutriment from the ground, whilst others grow inside
other plants, as is mentioned, by the way, in my treatise on Botany.
So with animals, some spring from parent animals according to their
kind, whilst others grow spontaneously and not from kindred stock; and
of these instances of spontaneous generation some come from putrefying
earth or vegetable matter, as is the case with a number of insects,
while others are spontaneously generated in the inside of animals
out of the secretions of their several organs.
In animals where generation goes by heredity, wherever there is

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