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History of Animals   


duality of sex generation is due to copulation. In the group of
fishes, however, there are some that are neither male nor female,
and these, while they are identical generically with other fish,
differ from them specifically; but there are others that stand
altogether isolated and apart by themselves. Other fishes there are
that are always female and never male, and from them are conceived
what correspond to the wind-eggs in birds. Such eggs, by the way, in
birds are all unfruitful; but it is their nature to be independently
capable of generation up to the egg-stage, unless indeed there be some
other mode than the one familiar to us of intercourse with the male;
but concerning these topics we shall treat more precisely later on. In
the case of certain fishes, however, after they have spontaneously
generated eggs, these eggs develop into living animals; only that in
certain of these cases development is spontaneous, and in others is
not independent of the male; and the method of proceeding in regard to
these matters will set forth by and by, for the method is somewhat
like to the method followed in the case of birds. But whensoever
creatures are spontaneously generated, either in other animals, in the
soil, or on plants, or in the parts of these, and when such are
generated male and female, then from the copulation of such
spontaneously generated males and females there is generated a
something-a something never identical in shape with the parents, but a
something imperfect. For instance, the issue of copulation in lice
is nits; in flies, grubs; in fleas, grubs egg-like in shape; and
from these issues the parent-species is never reproduced, nor is any
animal produced at all, but the like nondescripts only.
First, then, we must proceed to treat of 'covering' in regard to
such animals as cover and are covered; and then after this to treat in
due order of other matters, both the exceptional and those of
general occurrence.
2

Those animals, then, cover and are covered in which there is a
duality of sex, and the modes of covering in such animals are not in
all cases similar nor analogous. For the red-blooded animals that
are viviparous and furnished with feet have in all cases organs
adapted for procreation, but the sexes do not in all cases come
together in like manner. Thus, opisthuretic animals copulate with a
rearward presentment, as is the case with the lion, the hare, and
the lynx; though, by the way, in the case of the hare, the female is
often observed to cover the male.
The case is similar in most other such animals; that is to say,
the majority of quadrupeds copulate as best they can, the male
mounting the female; and this is the only method of copulating adopted
by birds, though there are certain diversities of method observed even
in birds. For in some cases the female squats on the ground and the
male mounts on top of her, as is the case with the cock and hen
bustard, and the barn-door cock and hen; in other cases, the male
mounts without the female squatting, as with the male and female
crane; for, with these birds, the male mounts on to the back of the
female and covers her, and like the cock-sparrow consumes but very
little time in the operation. Of quadrupeds, bears perform the
operation lying prone on one another, in the same way as other
quadrupeds do while standing up; that is to say, with the belly of the
male pressed to the back of the female. Hedgehogs copulate erect,
belly to belly.
With regard to large-sized vivipara, the hind only very rarely
sustains the mounting of the stag to the full conclusion of the
operation, and the same is the case with the cow as regards the
bull, owing to the rigidity of the penis of the bull. In point of
fact, the females of these animals elicit the sperm of the male in the
act of withdrawing from underneath him; and, by the way, this
phenomenon has been observed in the case of the stag and hind,
domesticated, of course. Covering with the wolf is the same as with

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