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History of Animals   


discharge, in all cases, a milk-like juice. These ducts unite, as in
birds; for birds, by the way, have their testicles in their
interior, and so have all ovipara that are furnished with feet. And
this union of the ducts is so far continued and of such extension as
to enter the receptive organ in the female.
In viviparous animals furnished with feet there is outwardly one
and the same duct for the sperm and the liquid residuum; but there are
separate ducts internally, as has been observed in the differentiation
of the organs. And with such animals as are not viviparous the same
passage serves for the discharge also of the solid residuum; although,
internally, there are two passages, separate but near to one
another. And these remarks apply to both male and female; for these
animals are unprovided with a bladder except in the case of the
tortoise; and the she-tortoise, though furnished with a bladder, has
only one passage; and tortoises, by the way, belong to the ovipara.
In the case of oviparous fishes the process of coition is less
open to observation. In point of fact, some are led by the want of
actual observation to surmise that the female becomes impregnated by
swallowing the seminal fluid of the male. And there can be no doubt
that this proceeding on the part of the female is often witnessed; for
at the rutting season the females follow the males and perform this
operation, and strike the males with their mouths under the belly, and
the males are thereby induced to part with the sperm sooner and more
plentifully. And, further, at the spawning season the males go in
pursuit of the females, and, as the female spawns, the males swallow
the eggs; and the species is continued in existence by the spawn
that survives this process. On the coast of Phoenicia they take
advantage of these instinctive propensities of the two sexes to
catch both one and the other: that is to say, by using the male of the
grey mullet as a decoy they collect and net the female, and by using
the female, the male.
The repeated observation of this phenomenon has led to the
notion that the process was equivalent to coition, but the fact is
that a similar phenomenon is observable in quadrupeds. For at the
rutting seasons both the males and the females take to running at
their genitals, and the two sexes take to smelling each other at those
parts. (With partridges, by the way, if the female gets to leeward
of the male, she becomes thereby impregnated. And often when they
happen to be in heat she is affected in this wise by the voice of
the male, or by his breathing down on her as he flies overhead; and,
by the way, both the male and the female partridge keep the mouth wide
open and protrude the tongue in the process of coition.)
The actual process of copulation on the part of oviparous fishes
is seldom accurately observed, owing to the fact that they very soon
fall aside and slip asunder. But, for all that, the process has been
observed to take place in the manner above described.
6

Molluscs, such as the octopus, the sepia, and the calamary, have
sexual intercourse all in the same way; that is to say, they unite
at the mouth, by an interlacing of their tentacles. When, then, the
octopus rests its so-called head against the ground and spreads abroad
its tentacles, the other sex fits into the outspreading of these
tentacles, and the two sexes then bring their suckers into mutual
connexion.
Some assert that the male has a kind of penis in one of his
tentacles, the one in which are the largest suckers; and they
further assert that the organ is tendinous in character, growing
attached right up to the middle of the tentacle, and that the latter
enables it to enter the nostril or funnel of the female.
Now cuttle-fish and calamaries swim about closely intertwined,
with mouths and tentacles facing one another and fitting closely
together, and swim thus in opposite directions; and they fit their
so-called nostrils into one another, and the one sex swims backwards

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