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History of Animals   


occurs prematurely by reason of abnormality, or is postponed by
physical injury.
In man, then, maturity is indicated by a change of the tone of
voice, by an increase in size and an alteration in appearance of the
sexual organs, as also in an increase of size and alteration in
appearance of the breasts; and above all, in the hair-growth at the
pubes. Man begins to possess seminal fluid about the age of
fourteen, and becomes generatively capable at about the age of
twenty-one years.
In other animals there is no hair-growth at the pubes (for
some animals have no hair at all, and others have none on the belly,
or less on the belly than on the back), but still, in some animals the
change of voice is quite obvious; and in some animals other organs
give indication of the commencing secretion of the sperm and the onset
of generative capacity. As a general rule the female is
sharper-toned in voice than the male, and the young animal than the
elder; for, by the way, the stag has a much deeper-toned bay than
the hind. Moreover, the male cries chiefly at rutting time, and the
female under terror and alarm; and the cry of the female is short, and
that of the male prolonged. With dogs also, as they grow old, the tone
of the bark gets deeper.
There is a difference observable also in the neighings of
horses. That is to say, the female foal has a thin small neigh, and
the male foal a small neigh, yet bigger and deeper-toned than that
of the female, and a louder one as time goes on. And when the young
male and female are two years old and take to breeding, the neighing
of the stallion becomes loud and deep, and that of the mare louder and
shriller than heretofore; and this change goes on until they reach the
age of about twenty years; and after this time the neighing in both
sexes becomes weaker and weaker.
As a rule, then, as was stated, the voice of the male differs
from the voice of the female, in animals where the voice admits of a
continuous and prolonged sound, in the fact that the note in the
male voice is more deep and bass; not, however, in all animals, for
the contrary holds good in the case of some, as for instance in
kine: for here the cow has a deeper note than the bull, and the calves
a deeper note than the cattle. And we can thus understand the change
of voice in animals that undergo gelding; for male animals that
undergo this process assume the characters of the female.
The following are the ages at which various animals become
capacitated for sexual commerce. The ewe and the she-goat are sexually
mature when one year old, and this statement is made more
confidently in respect to the she-goat than to the ewe; the ram and
the he-goat are sexually mature at the same age. The progeny of very
young individuals among these animals differs from that of other
males: for the males improve in the course of the second year, when
they become fully mature. The boar and the sow are capable of
intercourse when eight months old, and the female brings forth when
one year old, the difference corresponding to her period of gestation.
The boar is capable of generation when eight months old, but, with a
sire under a year in age, the litter is apt to be a poor one. The
ages, however, are not invariable; now and then the boar and the sow
are capable of intercourse when four months old, and are capable of
producing a litter which can be reared when six months old; but at
times the boar begins to be capable of intercourse when ten months. He
continues sexually mature until he is three years old. The dog and the
bitch are, as a rule, sexually capable and sexually receptive when a
year old, and sometimes when eight months old; but the priority in
date is more common with the dog than with the bitch. The period of
gestation with the bitch is sixty days, or sixty-one, or sixty-two, or
sixty-three at the utmost; the period is never under sixty days, or,
if it is, the litter comes to no good. The bitch, after delivering a
litter, submits to the male in six months, but not before. The horse
and the mare are, at the earliest, sexually capable and sexually

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