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History of Animals   


ground; and these honeycombs supply honey but never contain grubs. But
the honeycombs in these places are not all of this sort, nor do all
the bees construct them.
23

Anthrenae and wasps construct combs for their young. When they
have no king, but are wandering about in search of one, the anthrene
constructs its comb on some high place, and the wasp inside a hole.
When the anthrene and the wasp have a king, they construct their combs
underground. Their combs are in all cases hexagonal like the comb of
the bee. They are composed, however, not of wax, but of a bark-like
filamented fibre, and the comb of the anthrene is much neater than the
comb of the wasp. Like the bee, they put their young just like a
drop of liquid on to the side of the cell, and the egg clings to the
wall of the cell. But the eggs are not deposited in the cells
simultaneously; on the contrary, in some cells are creatures big
enough to fly, in others are nymphae, and in others are mere grubs. As
in the case of bees, excrement is observed only in the cells where the
grubs are found. As long as the creatures are in the nymph condition
they are motionless, and the cell is cemented over. In the comb of the
anthrene there is found in the cell of the young a drop of honey in
front of it. The larvae of the anthrene and the wasp make their
appearance not in the spring but in the autumn; and their growth is
especially discernible in times of full moon. And, by the way, the
eggs and the grubs never rest at the bottom of the cells, but always
cling on to the side wall.
24

There is a kind of humble-bee that builds a cone-shaped nest of
clay against a stone or in some similar situation, besmearing the clay
with something like spittle. And this nest or hive is exceedingly
thick and hard; in point of fact, one can hardly break it open with
a spike. Here the insects lay their eggs, and white grubs are produced
wrapped in a black membrane. Apart from the membrane there is found
some wax in the honeycomb; and this a wax is much sallower in hue than
the wax in the honeycomb of the bee.
25

Ants copulate and engender grubs; and these grubs attach
themselves to nothing in particular, but grow on and on from small and
rounded shapes until they become elongated and defined in shape: and
they are engendered in spring-time.
26

The land-scorpion also lays a number of egg shaped grubs, and
broods over them. When the hatching is completed, the parent animal,
as happens with the parent spider, is ejected and put to death by
the young ones; for very often the young ones are about eleven in
number.
27

Spiders in all cases copulate in the way above mentioned, and
generate at first small grubs. And these grubs metamorphose in their
entirety, and not partially, into spiders; for, by the way, the
grubs are round-shaped at the outset. And the spider, when it lays its
eggs, broods over them, and in three days the eggs or grubs take
definite shape.
All spiders lay their eggs in a web; but some spiders lay in a
small and fine web, and others in a thick one; and some, as a rule,
lay in a round-shaped case or capsule, and some are only partially
enveloped in the web. The young grubs are not all developed at one and
the same time into young spiders; but the moment the development takes
place, the young spider makes a leap and begins to spin his web. The
juice of the grub, if you squeeze it, is the same as the juice found

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