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History of Animals   

all animals that are subject to lice, the latter originate from the
animals themselves. Moreover, in animals that bathe at all, lice are
more than usually abundant when they change the water in which they
In the sea, lice are found on fishes, but they are generated not
out of the fish but out of slime; and they resemble multipedal
wood-lice, only that their tail is flat. Sea-lice are uniform in shape
and universal in locality, and are particularly numerous on the body
of the red mullet. And all these insects are multipedal and devoid
of blood.
The parasite that feeds on the tunny is found in the region of
the fins; it resembles a scorpion, and is about the size of a
spider. In the seas between Cyrene and Egypt there is a fish that
attends on the dolphin, which is called the 'dolphin's louse'. This
fish gets exceedingly fat from enjoying an abundance of food while the
dolphin is out in pursuit of its prey.

Other animalcules besides these are generated, as we have
already remarked, some in wool or in articles made of wool, as the ses
or clothes-moth. And these animalcules come in greater numbers if
the woollen substances are dusty; and they come in especially large
numbers if a spider be shut up in the cloth or wool, for the
creature drinks up any moisture that may be there, and dries up the
woollen substance. This grub is found also in men's clothes.
A creature is also found in wax long laid by, just as in wood,
and it is the smallest of animalcules and is white in colour, and is
designated the acari or mite. In books also other animalcules are
found, some resembling the grubs found in garments, and some
resembling tailless scorpions, but very small. As a general rule we
may state that such animalcules are found in practically anything,
both in dry things that are becoming moist and in moist things that
are drying, provided they contain the conditions of life.
There is a grub entitled the 'faggot-bearer', as strange a
creature as is known. Its head projects outside its shell, mottled
in colour, and its feet are near the end or apex, as is the case
with grubs in general; but the rest of its body is cased in a tunic as
it were of spider's web, and there are little dry twigs about it, that
look as though they had stuck by accident to the creature as it went
walking about. But these twig-like formations are naturally
connected with the tunic, for just as the shell is with the body of
the snail so is the whole superstructure with our grub; and they do
not drop off, but can only be torn off, as though they were all of a
piece with him, and the removal of the tunic is as fatal to this
grub as the removal of the shell would be to the snail. In course of
time this grub becomes a chrysalis, as is the case with the
silkworm, and lives in a motionless condition. But as yet it is not
known into what winged condition it is transformed.
The fruit of the wild fig contains the psen, or fig-wasp. This
creature is a grub at first; but in due time the husk peels off and
the psen leaves the husk behind it and flies away, and enters into the
fruit of the fig-tree through its orifice, and causes the fruit not to
drop off; and with a view to this phenomenon, country folk are in
the habit of tying wild figs on to fig-trees, and of planting wild
fig-trees near domesticated ones.

In the case of animals that are quadrupeds and red-blooded and
oviparous, generation takes place in the spring, but copulation does
not take place in an uniform season. In some cases it takes place in
the spring, in others in summer time, and in others in the autumn,
according as the subsequent season may be favourable for the young.
The tortoise lays eggs with a hard shell and of two colours
within, like birds' eggs, and after laying them buries them in the

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