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History of Animals   

by. With the cow, the she ass, and the mare, the discharge is more
copious actually, owing to their greater bulk, but proportionally to
the greater bulk it is far less copious. The cow, for instance, when
in heat, exhibits a small discharge to the extent of a quarter of a
pint of liquid or a little less; and the time when this discharge
takes place is the best time for her to be covered by the bull. Of all
quadrupeds the mare is the most easily delivered of its young,
exhibits the least amount of discharge after parturition, and emits
the least amount of blood; that is to say, of all animals in
proportion to size. With kine and mares menstruation usually manifests
itself at intervals of two, four, and six months; but, unless one be
constantly attending to and thoroughly acquainted with such animals,
it is difficult to verify the circumstance, and the result is that
many people are under the belief that the process never takes place
with these animals at all.
With mules menstruation never takes place, but the urine of the
female is thicker than the urine of the male. As a general rule the
discharge from the bladder in the case of quadrupeds is thicker than
it is in the human species, and this discharge with ewes and she-goats
is thicker than with rams and he-goats; but the urine of the jackass
is thicker than the urine of the she-ass, and the urine of the bull is
more pungent than the urine of the cow. After parturition the urine of
all quadrupeds becomes thicker, especially with such animals as
exhibit comparatively slight discharges. At breeding time the milk
become purulent, but after parturition it becomes wholesome. During
pregnancy ewes and she-goats get fatter and eat more; as is also the
case with cows, and, indeed, with the females of all quadrupeds.
In general the sexual appetites of animals are keenest in
spring-time; the time of pairing, however, is not the same for all,
but is adapted so as to ensure the rearing of the young at a
convenient season.
Domesticated swine carry their young for four months, and
bring forth a litter of twenty at the utmost; and, by the way, if
the litter be exceedingly numerous they cannot rear all the young.
As the sow grows old she continues to bear, but grows indifferent to
the boar; she conceives after a single copulation, but they have to
put the boar to her repeatedly owing to her dropping after intercourse
what is called the sow-virus. This incident befalls all sows, but some
of them discharge the genital sperm as well. During conception any one
of the litter that gets injured or dwarfed is called an afterpig or
scut: such injury may occur at any part of the womb. After littering
the mother offers the foremost teat to the first-born. When the sow is
in heat, she must not at once be put to the boar, but only after she
lets her lugs drop, for otherwise she is apt to get into heat again;
if she be put to the boar when in full condition of heat, one
copulation, as has been said, is sufficient. It is as well to supply
the boar at the period of copulation with barley, and the sow at the
time of parturition with boiled barley. Some swine give fine litters
only at the beginning, with others the litters improve as the
mothers grow in age and size. It is said that a sow, if she have one
of her eyes knocked out, is almost sure to die soon afterwards.
Swine for the most part live for fifteen years, but some fall little
short of the twenty.

Ewes conceive after three or four copulations with the ram. If
rain falls after intercourse, the ram impregnates the ewe again; and
it is the same with the she-goat. The ewe bears usually two lambs,
sometimes three or four. Both ewe and she-goat carry their young for
five months; consequently wherever a district is sunny and the animals
are used to comfort and well fed, they bear twice in the year. The
goat lives for eight years and the sheep for ten, but in most cases
not so long; the bell-wether, however, lives to fifteen years. In
every flock they train one of the rams for bell-wether. When he is

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