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History of Animals   

in the way of courage. Indians employ these animals for war
purposes, irrespective of sex; the females, however, are less in
size and much inferior in point of spirit. An elephant by pushing with
his big tusks can batter down a wall, and will butt with his
forehead at a palm until he brings it down, when he stamps on it and
lays it in orderly fashion on the ground. Men hunt the elephant in the
following way: they mount tame elephants of approved spirit and
proceed in quest of wild animals; when they come up with these they
bid the tame brutes to beat the wild ones until they tire the latter
completely. Hereupon the driver mounts a wild brute and guides him
with the application of his metal prong; after this the creature
soon becomes tame, and obeys guidance. Now when the driver is on their
back they are all tractable, but after he has dismounted, some are
tame and others vicious; in the case of these latter, they tie their
front-legs with ropes to keep them quiet. The animal is hunted whether
young or full grown.
Thus we see that in the case of the creatures above mentioned
their mutual friendship or the is due to the food they feed on and the
life they lead.

Of fishes, such as swim in shoals together are friendly to one
another; such as do not so swim are enemies. Some fishes swarm
during the spawning season; others after they have spawned. To state
the matter comprehensively, we may say that the following are shoaling
fish: the tunny, the maenis, the sea-gudgeon, the bogue, the
horse-mackerel, the coracine, the synodon or dentex, the red mullet,
the sphyraena, the anthias, the eleginus, the atherine, the
sarginus, the gar-fish, (the squid,) the rainbow-wrasse, the
pelamyd, the mackerel, the coly-mackerel. Of these some not only
swim in shoals, but go in pairs inside the shoal; the rest without
exception swim in pairs, and only swim in shoals at certain periods:
that is, as has been said, when they are heavy with spawn or after
they have spawned.
The basse and the grey mullet are bitter enemies, but they swarm
together at certain times; for at times not only do fishes of the same
species swarm together, but also those whose feeding-grounds are
identical or adjacent, if the food-supply be abundant. The grey mullet
is often found alive with its tail lopped off, and the conger with all
that part of its body removed that lies to the rear of the vent; in
the case of the mullet the injury is wrought by the basse, in that
of the conger-eel by the muraena. There is war between the larger
and the lesser fishes: for the big fishes prey on the little ones.
So much on the subject of marine animals.

The characters of animals, as has been observed, differ in respect
to timidity, to gentleness, to courage, to tameness, to
intelligence, and to stupidity.
The sheep is said to be naturally dull and stupid. Of all
quadrupeds it is the most foolish: it will saunter away to lonely
places with no object in view; oftentimes in stormy weather it will
stray from shelter; if it be overtaken by a snowstorm, it will stand
still unless the shepherd sets it in motion; it will stay behind and
perish unless the shepherd brings up the rams; it will then follow
If you catch hold of a goat's beard at the extremity-the beard
is of a substance resembling hair-all the companion goats will stand
stock still, staring at this particular goat in a kind of
You will have a warmer bed in amongst the goats than among the
sheep, because the goats will be quieter and will creep up towards
you; for the goat is more impatient of cold than the sheep.
Shepherds train sheep to close in together at a clap of their

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