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similarly to these. So, too, there are many senses in which a thing is
said to be, but all refer to one starting-point; some things are
said to be because they are substances, others because they are
affections of substance, others because they are a process towards
substance, or destructions or privations or qualities of substance, or
productive or generative of substance, or of things which are relative
to substance, or negations of one of these thing of substance
itself. It is for this reason that we say even of non-being that it is
nonbeing. As, then, there is one science which deals with all
healthy things, the same applies in the other cases also. For not only
in the case of things which have one common notion does the
investigation belong to one science, but also in the case of things
which are related to one common nature; for even these in a sense have
one common notion. It is clear then that it is the work of one science
also to study the things that are, qua being.-But everywhere science
deals chiefly with that which is primary, and on which the other
things depend, and in virtue of which they get their names. If,
then, this is substance, it will be of substances that the philosopher
must grasp the principles and the causes.
Now for each one class of things, as there is one perception, so
there is one science, as for instance grammar, being one science,
investigates all articulate sounds. Hence to investigate all the
species of being qua being is the work of a science which is
generically one, and to investigate the several species is the work of
the specific parts of the science.
If, now, being and unity are the same and are one thing in the
sense that they are implied in one another as principle and cause are,
not in the sense that they are explained by the same definition
(though it makes no difference even if we suppose them to be like
that-in fact this would even strengthen our case); for 'one man' and
'man' are the same thing, and so are 'existent man' and 'man', and the
doubling of the words in 'one man and one existent man' does not
express anything different (it is clear that the two things are not
separated either in coming to be or in ceasing to be); and similarly
'one existent man' adds nothing to 'existent man', and that it is
obvious that the addition in these cases means the same thing, and
unity is nothing apart from being; and if, further, the substance of
each thing is one in no merely accidental way, and similarly is from
its very nature something that is:-all this being so, there must be
exactly as many species of being as of unity. And to investigate the
essence of these is the work of a science which is generically one-I
mean, for instance, the discussion of the same and the similar and the
other concepts of this sort; and nearly all contraries may be referred
to this origin; let us take them as having been investigated in the
'Selection of Contraries'.
And there are as many parts of philosophy as there are kinds of
substance, so that there must necessarily be among them a first
philosophy and one which follows this. For being falls immediately
into genera; for which reason the sciences too will correspond to
these genera. For the philosopher is like the mathematician, as that
word is used; for mathematics also has parts, and there is a first and
a second science and other successive ones within the sphere of
Now since it is the work of one science to investigate
opposites, and plurality is opposed to unity-and it belongs to one
science to investigate the negation and the privation because in
both cases we are really investigating the one thing of which the
negation or the privation is a negation or privation (for we either
say simply that that thing is not present, or that it is not present
in some particular class; in the latter case difference is present
over and above what is implied in negation; for negation means just
the absence of the thing in question, while in privation there is also
employed an underlying nature of which the privation is
asserted):-in view of all these facts, the contraries of the

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