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to be or is known; but of these some are immanent in the thing and
others are outside. Hence the nature of a thing is a beginning, and so
is the element of a thing, and thought and will, and essence, and
the final cause-for the good and the beautiful are the beginning
both of the knowledge and of the movement of many things.

'Cause' means (1) that from which, as immanent material, a thing
comes into being, e.g. the bronze is the cause of the statue and the
silver of the saucer, and so are the classes which include these.
(2) The form or pattern, i.e. the definition of the essence, and the
classes which include this (e.g. the ratio 2:1 and number in general
are causes of the octave), and the parts included in the definition.
(3) That from which the change or the resting from change first
begins; e.g. the adviser is a cause of the action, and the father a
cause of the child, and in general the maker a cause of the thing made
and the change-producing of the changing. (4) The end, i.e. that for
the sake of which a thing is; e.g. health is the cause of walking. For
'Why does one walk?' we say; 'that one may be healthy'; and in
speaking thus we think we have given the cause. The same is true of
all the means that intervene before the end, when something else has
put the process in motion, as e.g. thinning or purging or drugs or
instruments intervene before health is reached; for all these are
for the sake of the end, though they differ from one another in that
some are instruments and others are actions.
These, then, are practically all the senses in which causes are
spoken of, and as they are spoken of in several senses it follows both
that there are several causes of the same thing, and in no
accidental sense (e.g. both the art of sculpture and the bronze are
causes of the statue not in respect of anything else but qua statue;
not, however, in the same way, but the one as matter and the other
as source of the movement), and that things can be causes of one
another (e.g. exercise of good condition, and the latter of
exercise; not, however, in the same way, but the one as end and the
other as source of movement).-Again, the same thing is the cause of
contraries; for that which when present causes a particular thing,
we sometimes charge, when absent, with the contrary, e.g. we impute
the shipwreck to the absence of the steersman, whose presence was
the cause of safety; and both-the presence and the privation-are
causes as sources of movement.
All the causes now mentioned fall under four senses which are
the most obvious. For the letters are the cause of syllables, and
the material is the cause of manufactured things, and fire and earth
and all such things are the causes of bodies, and the parts are causes
of the whole, and the hypotheses are causes of the conclusion, in
the sense that they are that out of which these respectively are made;
but of these some are cause as the substratum (e.g. the parts), others
as the essence (the whole, the synthesis, and the form). The semen,
the physician, the adviser, and in general the agent, are all
sources of change or of rest. The remainder are causes as the end
and the good of the other things; for that for the sake of which other
things are tends to be the best and the end of the other things; let
us take it as making no difference whether we call it good or apparent
These, then, are the causes, and this is the number of their
kinds, but the varieties of causes are many in number, though when
summarized these also are comparatively few. Causes are spoken of in
many senses, and even of those which are of the same kind some are
causes in a prior and others in a posterior sense, e.g. both 'the
physician' and 'the professional man' are causes of health, and both
'the ratio 2:1' and 'number' are causes of the octave, and the classes
that include any particular cause are always causes of the
particular effect. Again, there are accidental causes and the
classes which include these; e.g. while in one sense 'the sculptor'

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