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causes the statue, in another sense 'Polyclitus' causes it, because
the sculptor happens to be Polyclitus; and the classes that include
the accidental cause are also causes, e.g. 'man'-or in general
'animal'-is the cause of the statue, because Polyclitus is a man,
and man is an animal. Of accidental causes also some are more remote
or nearer than others, as, for instance, if 'the white' and 'the
musical' were called causes of the statue, and not only 'Polyclitus'
or 'man'. But besides all these varieties of causes, whether proper or
accidental, some are called causes as being able to act, others as
acting; e.g. the cause of the house's being built is a builder, or a
builder who is building.-The same variety of language will be found
with regard to the effects of causes; e.g. a thing may be called the
cause of this statue or of a statue or in general of an image, and
of this bronze or of bronze or of matter in general; and similarly
in the case of accidental effects. Again, both accidental and proper
causes may be spoken of in combination; e.g. we may say not
'Polyclitus' nor 'the sculptor' but 'Polyclitus the sculptor'. Yet all
these are but six in number, while each is spoken of in two ways;
for (A) they are causes either as the individual, or as the genus,
or as the accidental, or as the genus that includes the accidental,
and these either as combined, or as taken simply; and (B) all may be
taken as acting or as having a capacity. But they differ inasmuch as
the acting causes, i.e. the individuals, exist, or do not exist,
simultaneously with the things of which they are causes, e.g. this
particular man who is healing, with this particular man who is
recovering health, and this particular builder with this particular
thing that is being built; but the potential causes are not always
in this case; for the house does not perish at the same time as the
builder.
3

'Element' means (1) the primary component immanent in a thing, and
indivisible in kind into other kinds; e.g. the elements of speech
are the parts of which speech consists and into which it is ultimately
divided, while they are no longer divided into other forms of speech
different in kind from them. If they are divided, their parts are of
the same kind, as a part of water is water (while a part of the
syllable is not a syllable). Similarly those who speak of the elements
of bodies mean the things into which bodies are ultimately divided,
while they are no longer divided into other things differing in
kind; and whether the things of this sort are one or more, they call
these elements. The so-called elements of geometrical proofs, and in
general the elements of demonstrations, have a similar character;
for the primary demonstrations, each of which is implied in many
demonstrations, are called elements of demonstrations; and the primary
syllogisms, which have three terms and proceed by means of one middle,
are of this nature.
(2) People also transfer the word 'element' from this meaning
and apply it to that which, being one and small, is useful for many
purposes; for which reason what is small and simple and indivisible is
called an element. Hence come the facts that the most universal things
are elements (because each of them being one and simple is present
in a plurality of things, either in all or in as many as possible),
and that unity and the point are thought by some to be first
principles. Now, since the so-called genera are universal and
indivisible (for there is no definition of them), some say the
genera are elements, and more so than the differentia, because the
genus is more universal; for where the differentia is present, the
genus accompanies it, but where the genus is present, the
differentia is not always so. It is common to all the meanings that
the element of each thing is the first component immanent in each.
4

'Nature' means (1) the genesis of growing things-the meaning which

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