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that cannot be persuaded-and rightly, for it is contrary to the
movement which accords with purpose and with reasoning.-(3) We say
that that which cannot be otherwise is necessarily as it is. And
from this sense of 'necessary' all the others are somehow derived; for
a thing is said to do or suffer what is necessary in the sense of
compulsory, only when it cannot act according to its impulse because
of the compelling forces-which implies that necessity is that
because of which a thing cannot be otherwise; and similarly as regards
the conditions of life and of good; for when in the one case good,
in the other life and being, are not possible without certain
conditions, these are necessary, and this kind of cause is a sort of
necessity. Again, demonstration is a necessary thing because the
conclusion cannot be otherwise, if there has been demonstration in the
unqualified sense; and the causes of this necessity are the first
premisses, i.e. the fact that the propositions from which the
syllogism proceeds cannot be otherwise.
Now some things owe their necessity to something other than
themselves; others do not, but are themselves the source of
necessity in other things. Therefore the necessary in the primary
and strict sense is the simple; for this does not admit of more states
than one, so that it cannot even be in one state and also in
another; for if it did it would already be in more than one. If, then,
there are any things that are eternal and unmovable, nothing
compulsory or against their nature attaches to them.
6

'One' means (1) that which is one by accident, (2) that which is
one by its own nature. (1) Instances of the accidentally one are
'Coriscus and what is musical', and 'musical Coriscus' (for it is
the same thing to say 'Coriscus and what is musical', and 'musical
Coriscus'), and 'what is musical and what is just', and 'musical
Coriscus and just Coriscus'. For all of these are called one by virtue
of an accident, 'what is just and what is musical' because they are
accidents of one substance, 'what is musical and Coriscus' because the
one is an accident of the other; and similarly in a sense 'musical
Coriscus' is one with 'Coriscus' because one of the parts of the
phrase is an accident of the other, i.e. 'musical' is an accident of
Coriscus; and 'musical Coriscus' is one with 'just Coriscus' because
one part of each is an accident of one and the same subject. The
case is similar if the accident is predicated of a genus or of any
universal name, e.g. if one says that man is the same as 'musical
man'; for this is either because 'musical' is an accident of man,
which is one substance, or because both are accidents of some
individual, e.g. Coriscus. Both, however, do not belong to him in
the same way, but one presumably as genus and included in his
substance, the other as a state or affection of the substance.
The things, then, that are called one in virtue of an accident,
are called so in this way. (2) Of things that are called one in virtue
of their own nature some (a) are so called because they are
continuous, e.g. a bundle is made one by a band, and pieces of wood
are made one by glue; and a line, even if it is bent, is called one if
it is continuous, as each part of the body is, e.g. the leg or the
arm. Of these themselves, the continuous by nature are more one than
the continuous by art. A thing is called continuous which has by its
own nature one movement and cannot have any other; and the movement is
one when it is indivisible, and it is indivisible in respect of
time. Those things are continuous by their own nature which are one
not merely by contact; for if you put pieces of wood touching one
another, you will not say these are one piece of wood or one body or
one continuum of any other sort. Things, then, that are continuous
in any way called one, even if they admit of being bent, and still
more those which cannot be bent; e.g. the shin or the thigh is more
one than the leg, because the movement of the leg need not be one. And
the straight line is more one than the bent; but that which is bent

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