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The term 'opposite' is applied to contradictories, and to
contraries, and to relative terms, and to privation and possession,
and to the extremes from which and into which generation and
dissolution take place; and the attributes that cannot be present at
the same time in that which is receptive of both, are said to be
opposed,-either themselves of their constituents. Grey and white
colour do not belong at the same time to the same thing; hence their
constituents are opposed.
The term 'contrary' is applied (1) to those attributes differing
in genus which cannot belong at the same time to the same subject, (2)
to the most different of the things in the same genus, (3) to the most
different of the attributes in the same recipient subject, (4) to
the most different of the things that fall under the same faculty, (5)
to the things whose difference is greatest either absolutely or in
genus or in species. The other things that are called contrary are
so called, some because they possess contraries of the above kind,
some because they are receptive of such, some because they are
productive of or susceptible to such, or are producing or suffering
them, or are losses or acquisitions, or possessions or privations,
of such. Since 'one' and 'being' have many senses, the other terms
which are derived from these, and therefore 'same', 'other', and
'contrary', must correspond, so that they must be different for each
The term 'other in species' is applied to things which being of
the same genus are not subordinate the one to the other, or which
being in the same genus have a difference, or which have a contrariety
in their substance; and contraries are other than one another in
species (either all contraries or those which are so called in the
primary sense), and so are those things whose definitions differ in
the infima species of the genus (e.g. man and horse are indivisible in
genus, but their definitions are different), and those which being
in the same substance have a difference. 'The same in species' has the
various meanings opposite to these.

The words 'prior' and 'posterior' are applied (1) to some things
(on the assumption that there is a first, i.e. a beginning, in each
class) because they are nearer some beginning determined either
absolutely and by nature, or by reference to something or in some
place or by certain people; e.g. things are prior in place because
they are nearer either to some place determined by nature (e.g. the
middle or the last place), or to some chance object; and that which is
farther is posterior.-Other things are prior in time; some by being
farther from the present, i.e. in the case of past events (for the
Trojan war is prior to the Persian, because it is farther from the
present), others by being nearer the present, i.e. in the case of
future events (for the Nemean games are prior to the Pythian, if we
treat the present as beginning and first point, because they are
nearer the present).-Other things are prior in movement; for that
which is nearer the first mover is prior (e.g. the boy is prior to the
man); and the prime mover also is a beginning absolutely.-Others are
prior in power; for that which exceeds in power, i.e. the more
powerful, is prior; and such is that according to whose will the
other-i.e. the posterior-must follow, so that if the prior does not
set it in motion the other does not move, and if it sets it in
motion it does move; and here will is a beginning.-Others are prior in
arrangement; these are the things that are placed at intervals in
reference to some one definite thing according to some rule, e.g. in
the chorus the second man is prior to the third, and in the lyre the
second lowest string is prior to the lowest; for in the one case the
leader and in the other the middle string is the beginning.
These, then, are called prior in this sense, but (2) in another
sense that which is prior for knowledge is treated as also

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