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Metaphysics   


disease.-(3) As that which contains holds the things contained; for
a thing is said to be held by that in which it is as in a container;
e.g. we say that the vessel holds the liquid and the city holds men
and the ship sailors; and so too that the whole holds the parts.-(4)
That which hinders a thing from moving or acting according to its
own impulse is said to hold it, as pillars hold the incumbent weights,
and as the poets make Atlas hold the heavens, implying that
otherwise they would collapse on the earth, as some of the natural
philosophers also say. In this way also that which holds things
together is said to hold the things it holds together, since they
would otherwise separate, each according to its own impulse.
'Being in something' has similar and corresponding meanings to
'holding' or 'having'.
24

'To come from something' means (1) to come from something as
from matter, and this in two senses, either in respect of the
highest genus or in respect of the lowest species; e.g. in a sense all
things that can be melted come from water, but in a sense the statue
comes from bronze.-(2) As from the first moving principle; e.g.
'what did the fight come from?' From abusive language, because this
was the origin of the fight.-(3) From the compound of matter and
shape, as the parts come from the whole, and the verse from the Iliad,
and the stones from the house; (in every such case the whole is a
compound of matter and shape,) for the shape is the end, and only that
which attains an end is complete.-(4) As the form from its part,
e.g. man from 'two-footed'and syllable from 'letter'; for this is a
different sense from that in which the statue comes from bronze; for
the composite substance comes from the sensible matter, but the form
also comes from the matter of the form.-Some things, then, are said to
come from something else in these senses; but (5) others are so
described if one of these senses is applicable to a part of that other
thing; e.g. the child comes from its father and mother, and plants
come from the earth, because they come from a part of those
things.-(6) It means coming after a thing in time, e.g. night comes
from day and storm from fine weather, because the one comes after
the other. Of these things some are so described because they admit of
change into one another, as in the cases now mentioned; some merely
because they are successive in time, e.g. the voyage took place 'from'
the equinox, because it took place after the equinox, and the festival
of the Thargelia comes 'from' the Dionysia, because after the
Dionysia.
25

'Part' means (1) (a) that into which a quantum can in any way be
divided; for that which is taken from a quantum qua quantum is
always called a part of it, e.g. two is called in a sense a part of
three. It means (b), of the parts in the first sense, only those which
measure the whole; this is why two, though in one sense it is, in
another is not, called a part of three.-(2) The elements into which
a kind might be divided apart from the quantity are also called
parts of it; for which reason we say the species are parts of the
genus.-(3) The elements into which a whole is divided, or of which
it consists-the 'whole' meaning either the form or that which has
the form; e.g. of the bronze sphere or of the bronze cube both the
bronze-i.e. the matter in which the form is-and the characteristic
angle are parts.-(4) The elements in the definition which explains a
thing are also parts of the whole; this is why the genus is called a
part of the species, though in another sense the species is part of
the genus.
26

'A whole' means (1) that from which is absent none of the parts of
which it is said to be naturally a whole, and (2) that which so

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