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Metaphysics   


contains the things it contains that they form a unity; and this in
two senses-either as being each severally one single thing, or as
making up the unity between them. For (a) that which is true of a
whole class and is said to hold good as a whole (which implies that it
is a kind whole) is true of a whole in the sense that it contains many
things by being predicated of each, and by all of them, e.g. man,
horse, god, being severally one single thing, because all are living
things. But (b) the continuous and limited is a whole, when it is a
unity consisting of several parts, especially if they are present only
potentially, but, failing this, even if they are present actually.
Of these things themselves, those which are so by nature are wholes in
a higher degree than those which are so by art, as we said in the case
of unity also, wholeness being in fact a sort of oneness.
Again (3) of quanta that have a beginning and a middle and an end,
those to which the position does not make a difference are called
totals, and those to which it does, wholes. Those which admit of
both descriptions are both wholes and totals. These are the things
whose nature remains the same after transposition, but whose form does
not, e.g. wax or a coat; they are called both wholes and totals; for
they have both characteristics. Water and all liquids and number are
called totals, but 'the whole number' or 'the whole water' one does
not speak of, except by an extension of meaning. To things, to which
qua one the term 'total' is applied, the term 'all' is applied when
they are treated as separate; 'this total number,' 'all these units.'
27

It is not any chance quantitative thing that can be said to be
'mutilated'; it must be a whole as well as divisible. For not only
is two not 'mutilated' if one of the two ones is taken away (for the
part removed by mutilation is never equal to the remainder), but in
general no number is thus mutilated; for it is also necessary that the
essence remain; if a cup is mutilated, it must still be a cup; but the
number is no longer the same. Further, even if things consist of
unlike parts, not even these things can all be said to be mutilated,
for in a sense a number has unlike parts (e.g. two and three) as
well as like; but in general of the things to which their position
makes no difference, e.g. water or fire, none can be mutilated; to
be mutilated, things must be such as in virtue of their essence have a
certain position. Again, they must be continuous; for a musical
scale consists of unlike parts and has position, but cannot become
mutilated. Besides, not even the things that are wholes are
mutilated by the privation of any part. For the parts removed must
be neither those which determine the essence nor any chance parts,
irrespective of their position; e.g. a cup is not mutilated if it is
bored through, but only if the handle or a projecting part is removed,
and a man is mutilated not if the flesh or the spleen is removed,
but if an extremity is, and that not every extremity but one which
when completely removed cannot grow again. Therefore baldness is not a
mutilation.
28

The term 'race' or 'genus' is used (1) if generation of things
which have the same form is continuous, e.g. 'while the race of men
lasts' means 'while the generation of them goes on
continuously'.-(2) It is used with reference to that which first
brought things into existence; for it is thus that some are called
Hellenes by race and others Ionians, because the former proceed from
Hellen and the latter from Ion as their first begetter. And the word
is used in reference to the begetter more than to the matter, though
people also get a race-name from the female, e.g. 'the descendants
of Pyrrha'.-(3) There is genus in the sense in which 'plane' is the
genus of plane figures and solid' of solids; for each of the figures
is in the one case a plane of such and such a kind, and in the other a
solid of such and such a kind; and this is what underlies the

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