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spontaneously as well as by art, e.g. health, while others are not,
e.g. a house. The reason is that in some cases the matter which
governs the production in the making and producing of any work of art,
and in which a part of the product is present,-some matter is such
as to be set in motion by itself and some is not of this nature, and
of the former kind some can move itself in the particular way
required, while other matter is incapable of this; for many things can
be set in motion by themselves but not in some particular way, e.g.
that of dancing. The things, then, whose matter is of this sort,
e.g. stones, cannot be moved in the particular way required, except by
something else, but in another way they can move themselves-and so
it is with fire. Therefore some things will not exist apart from
some one who has the art of making them, while others will; for motion
will be started by these things which have not the art but can
themselves be moved by other things which have not the art or with a
motion starting from a part of the product.
And it is clear also from what has been said that in a sense every
product of art is produced from a thing which shares its name (as
natural products are produced), or from a part of itself which
shares its name (e.g. the house is produced from a house, qua produced
by reason; for the art of building is the form of the house), or
from something which contains a art of it,-if we exclude things
produced by accident; for the cause of the thing's producing the
product directly per se is a part of the product. The heat in the
movement caused heat in the body, and this is either health, or a part
of health, or is followed by a part of health or by health itself. And
so it is said to cause health, because it causes that to which
health attaches as a consequence.
Therefore, as in syllogisms, substance is the starting-point of
everything. It is from 'what a thing is' that syllogisms start; and
from it also we now find processes of production to start.
Things which are formed by nature are in the same case as these
products of art. For the seed is productive in the same way as the
things that work by art; for it has the form potentially, and that
from which the seed comes has in a sense the same name as the
offspring only in a sense, for we must not expect parent and offspring
always to have exactly the same name, as in the production of 'human
being' from 'human' for a 'woman' also can be produced by a
'man'-unless the offspring be an imperfect form; which is the reason
why the parent of a mule is not a mule. The natural things which (like
the artificial objects previously considered) can be produced
spontaneously are those whose matter can be moved even by itself in
the way in which the seed usually moves it; those things which have
not such matter cannot be produced except from the parent animals
But not only regarding substance does our argument prove that
its form does not come to be, but the argument applies to all the
primary classes alike, i.e. quantity, quality, and the other
categories. For as the brazen sphere comes to be, but not the sphere
nor the brass, and so too in the case of brass itself, if it comes
to be, it is its concrete unity that comes to be (for the matter and
the form must always exist before), so is it both in the case of
substance and in that of quality and quantity and the other categories
likewise; for the quality does not come to be, but the wood of that
quality, and the quantity does not come to be, but the wood or the
animal of that size. But we may learn from these instances a
peculiarity of substance, that there must exist beforehand in complete
reality another substance which produces it, e.g. an animal if an
animal is produced; but it is not necessary that a quality or quantity
should pre-exist otherwise than potentially.

Since a definition is a formula, and every formula has parts,
and as the formula is to the thing, so is the part of the formula to

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