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Metaphysics   


the part of the thing, the question is already being asked whether the
formula of the parts must be present in the formula of the whole or
not. For in some cases the formulae of the parts are seen to be
present, and in some not. The formula of the circle does not include
that of the segments, but that of the syllable includes that of the
letters; yet the circle is divided into segments as the syllable is
into letters.-And further if the parts are prior to the whole, and the
acute angle is a part of the right angle and the finger a part of
the animal, the acute angle will be prior to the right angle and
finger to the man. But the latter are thought to be prior; for in
formula the parts are explained by reference to them, and in respect
also of the power of existing apart from each other the wholes are
prior to the parts.
Perhaps we should rather say that 'part' is used in several
senses. One of these is 'that which measures another thing in
respect of quantity'. But let this sense be set aside; let us
inquire about the parts of which substance consists. If then matter is
one thing, form another, the compound of these a third, and both the
matter and the form and the compound are substance even the matter
is in a sense called part of a thing, while in a sense it is not,
but only the elements of which the formula of the form consists.
E.g. of concavity flesh (for this is the matter in which it is
produced) is not a part, but of snubness it is a part; and the
bronze is a part of the concrete statue, but not of the statue when
this is spoken of in the sense of the form. (For the form, or the
thing as having form, should be said to be the thing, but the material
element by itself must never be said to be so.) And so the formula
of the circle does not include that of the segments, but the formula
of the syllable includes that of the letters; for the letters are
parts of the formula of the form, and not matter, but the segments are
parts in the sense of matter on which the form supervenes; yet they
are nearer the form than the bronze is when roundness is produced in
bronze. But in a sense not even every kind of letter will be present
in the formula of the syllable, e.g. particular waxen letters or the
letters as movements in the air; for in these also we have already
something that is part of the syllable only in the sense that it is
its perceptible matter. For even if the line when divided passes
away into its halves, or the man into bones and muscles and flesh,
it does not follow that they are composed of these as parts of their
essence, but rather as matter; and these are parts of the concrete
thing, but not also of the form, i.e. of that to which the formula
refers; wherefore also they are not present in the formulae. In one
kind of formula, then, the formula of such parts will be present,
but in another it must not be present, where the formula does not
refer to the concrete object. For it is for this reason that some
things have as their constituent principles parts into which they pass
away, while some have not. Those things which are the form and the
matter taken together, e.g. the snub, or the bronze circle, pass
away into these materials, and the matter is a part of them; but those
things which do not involve matter but are without matter, and whose
formulae are formulae of the form only, do not pass away,-either not
at all or at any rate not in this way. Therefore these materials are
principles and parts of the concrete things, while of the form they
are neither parts nor principles. And therefore the clay statue is
resolved into clay and the ball into bronze and Callias into flesh and
bones, and again the circle into its segments; for there is a sense of
'circle' in which involves matter. For 'circle' is used ambiguously,
meaning both the circle, unqualified, and the individual circle,
because there is no name peculiar to the individuals.
The truth has indeed now been stated, but still let us state it
yet more clearly, taking up the question again. The parts of the
formula, into which the formula is divided, are prior to it, either
all or some of them. The formula of the right angle, however, does not
include the formula of the acute, but the formula of the acute

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