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mentioned each gets somehow the 'what' in some class of things and
tries to prove the other truths, with more or less precision. Some get
the 'what' through perception, others by hypothesis; so that it is
clear from an induction of this sort that there is no demonstration.
of the substance or 'what'.
There is a science of nature, and evidently it must be different
both from practical and from productive science. For in the case of
productive science the principle of movement is in the producer and
not in the product, and is either an art or some other faculty. And
similarly in practical science the movement is not in the thing
done, but rather in the doers. But the science of the natural
philosopher deals with the things that have in themselves a
principle of movement. It is clear from these facts, then, that
natural science must be neither practical nor productive, but
theoretical (for it must fall into some one of these classes). And
since each of the sciences must somehow know the 'what' and use this
as a principle, we must not fall to observe how the natural
philosopher should define things and how he should state the
definition of the essence-whether as akin to 'snub' or rather to
'concave'. For of these the definition of 'snub' includes the matter
of the thing, but that of 'concave' is independent of the matter;
for snubness is found in a nose, so that we look for its definition
without eliminating the nose, for what is snub is a concave nose.
Evidently then the definition of flesh also and of the eye and of
the other parts must always be stated without eliminating the matter.
Since there is a science of being qua being and capable of
existing apart, we must consider whether this is to be regarded as the
same as physics or rather as different. Physics deals with the
things that have a principle of movement in themselves; mathematics is
theoretical, and is a science that deals with things that are at rest,
but its subjects cannot exist apart. Therefore about that which can
exist apart and is unmovable there is a science different from both of
these, if there is a substance of this nature (I mean separable and
unmovable), as we shall try to prove there is. And if there is such
a kind of thing in the world, here must surely be the divine, and this
must be the first and most dominant principle. Evidently, then,
there are three kinds of theoretical sciences-physics, mathematics,
theology. The class of theoretical sciences is the best, and of
these themselves the last named is best; for it deals with the highest
of existing things, and each science is called better or worse in
virtue of its proper object.
One might raise the question whether the science of being qua
being is to be regarded as universal or not. Each of the
mathematical sciences deals with some one determinate class of things,
but universal mathematics applies alike to all. Now if natural
substances are the first of existing things, physics must be the first
of sciences; but if there is another entity and substance, separable
and unmovable, the knowledge of it must be different and prior to
physics and universal because it is prior.

Since 'being' in general has several senses, of which one is
'being by accident', we must consider first that which 'is' in this
sense. Evidently none of the traditional sciences busies itself
about the accidental. For neither does architecture consider what will
happen to those who are to use the house (e.g. whether they have a
painful life in it or not), nor does weaving, or shoemaking, or the
confectioner's art, do the like; but each of these sciences
considers only what is peculiar to it, i.e. its proper end. And as for
the argument that 'when he who is musical becomes lettered he'll be
both at once, not having been both before; and that which is, not
always having been, must have come to be; therefore he must have at
once become musical and lettered',-this none of the recognized
sciences considers, but only sophistic; for this alone busies itself

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