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is no opposition. The change from the negative into the positive which
is its contradictory is generation-absolute change absolute
generation, and partial change partial generation; and the change from
positive to negative is destruction-absolute change absolute
destruction, and partial change partial destruction. If, then, 'that
which is not' has several senses, and movement can attach neither to
that which implies putting together or separating, nor to that which
implies potency and is opposed to that which is in the full sense
(true, the not-white or not-good can be moved incidentally, for the
not-white might be a man; but that which is not a particular thing
at all can in no wise be moved), that which is not cannot be moved
(and if this is so, generation cannot be movement; for that which is
not is generated; for even if we admit to the full that its generation
is accidental, yet it is true to say that 'not-being' is predicable of
that which is generated absolutely). Similarly rest cannot be long
to that which is not. These consequences, then, turn out to be
awkward, and also this, that everything that is moved is in a place,
but that which is not is not in a place; for then it would be
somewhere. Nor is destruction movement; for the contrary of movement
is rest, but the contrary of destruction is generation. Since every
movement is a change, and the kinds of change are the three named
above, and of these those in the way of generation and destruction are
not movements, and these are the changes from a thing to its
contradictory, it follows that only the change from positive into
positive is movement. And the positives are either contrary or
intermediate (for even privation must be regarded as contrary), and
are expressed by an affirmative term, e.g. 'naked' or 'toothless' or
'black'.
12

If the categories are classified as substance, quality, place,
acting or being acted on, relation, quantity, there must be three
kinds of movement-of quality, of quantity, of place. There is no
movement in respect of substance (because there is nothing contrary to
substance), nor of relation (for it is possible that if one of two
things in relation changes, the relative term which was true of the
other thing ceases to be true, though this other does not change at
all,-so that their movement is accidental), nor of agent and
patient, or mover and moved, because there is no movement of
movement nor generation of generation, nor, in general, change of
change. For there might be movement of movement in two senses; (1)
movement might be the subject moved, as a man is moved because he
changes from pale to dark,-so that on this showing movement, too,
may be either heated or cooled or change its place or increase. But
this is impossible; for change is not a subject. Or (2) some other
subject might change from change into some other form of existence
(e.g. a man from disease into health). But this also is not possible
except incidentally. For every movement is change from something
into something. (And so are generation and destruction; only, these
are changes into things opposed in certain ways while the other,
movement, is into things opposed in another way.) A thing changes,
then, at the same time from health into illness, and from this
change itself into another. Clearly, then, if it has become ill, it
will have changed into whatever may be the other change concerned
(though it may be at rest), and, further, into a determinate change
each time; and that new change will be from something definite into
some other definite thing; therefore it will be the opposite change,
that of growing well. We answer that this happens only incidentally;
e.g. there is a change from the process of recollection to that of
forgetting, only because that to which the process attaches is
changing, now into a state of knowledge, now into one of ignorance.
Further, the process will go on to infinity, if there is to be
change of change and coming to be of coming to be. What is true of the
later, then, must be true of the earlier; e.g. if the simple coming to

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