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the same volume of matter) and, they also cool the vapour that rises

and condense it back into water.

Hence, as we said, we find that the greatest rivers flow from the

greatest mountains. This can be seen by looking at itineraries: what

is recorded in them consists either of things which the writer has

seen himself or of such as he has compiled after inquiry from those

who have seen them.

In Asia we find that the most numerous and greatest rivers flow from

the mountain called Parnassus, admittedly the greatest of all

mountains towards the south-east. When you have crossed it you see the

outer ocean, the further limit of which is unknown to the dwellers

in our world. Besides other rivers there flow from it the Bactrus, the

Choaspes, the Araxes: from the last a branch separates off and flows

into lake Maeotis as the Tanais. From it, too, flows the Indus, the

volume of whose stream is greatest of all rivers. From the Caucasus

flows the Phasis, and very many other great rivers besides. Now the

Caucasus is the greatest of the mountains that lie to the northeast,

both as regards its extent and its height. A proof of its height is

the fact that it can be seen from the so-called 'deeps' and from the

entrance to the lake. Again, the sun shines on its peaks for a third

part of the night before sunrise and again after sunset. Its extent is

proved by the fact that thought contains many inhabitable regions

which are occupied by many nations and in which there are said to be

great lakes, yet they say that all these regions are visible up to the

last peak. From Pyrene (this is a mountain towards the west in

Celtice) there flow the Istrus and the Tartessus. The latter flows

outside the pillars, while the Istrus flows through all Europe into

the Euxine. Most of the remaining rivers flow northwards from the

Hercynian mountains, which are the greatest in height and extent about

that region. In the extreme north, beyond furthest Scythia, are the

mountains called Rhipae. The stories about their size are altogether

too fabulous: however, they say that the most and (after the Istrus)

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