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the matter to be determined: hence the juice of raw things is thin,

cold rather than hot, and unfit for food or drink. Rawness, like

ripening, is used to denote a variety of states. Thus the liquid and

solid excreta and catarrhs are called raw for the same reason, for

in every case the word is applied to things because their heat has not

got the mastery in them and compacted them. If we go further, brick is

called raw and so is milk and many other things too when they are such

as to admit of being changed and compacted by heat but have remained

unaffected. Hence, while we speak of 'boiled' water, we cannot speak

of raw water, since it does not thicken. We have now defined

ripening and rawness and assigned their causes.

Boiling is, in general, a concoction by moist heat of the

indeterminate matter contained in the moisture of the thing boiled,

and the word is strictly applicable only to things boiled in the way

of cooking. The indeterminate matter, as we said, will be either

spirituous or watery. The cause of the concoction is the fire

contained in the moisture; for what is cooked in a frying-pan is

broiled: it is the heat outside that affects it and, as for the

moisture in which it is contained, it dries this up and draws it

into itself. But a thing that is being boiled behaves in the

opposite way: the moisture contained in it is drawn out of it by the

heat in the liquid outside. Hence boiled meats are drier than broiled;

for, in boiling, things do not draw the moisture into themselves,

since the external heat gets the better of the internal: if the

internal heat had got the better it would have drawn the moisture to

itself. Not every body admits of the process of boiling: if there is

no moisture in it, it does not (for instance, stones), nor does it

if there is moisture in it but the density of the body is too great

for it-to-be mastered, as in the case of wood. But only those bodies

can be boiled that contain moisture which can be acted on by the

heat contained in the liquid outside. It is true that gold and wood

and many other things are said to be 'boiled': but this is a stretch

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