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of the meaning of the word, though the kind of thing intended is the

same, the reason for the usage being that the various cases have no

names appropriated to them. Liquids too, like milk and must, are

said to undergo a process of 'boiling' when the external fire that

surrounds and heats them changes the savour in the liquid into a given

form, the process being thus in a way like what we have called


The end of the things that undergo boiling, or indeed any form of

concoction, is not always the same: some are meant to be eaten, some

drunk, and some are intended for other uses; for instance dyes, too,

are said to be 'boiled'.

All those things then admit of 'boiling' which can grow denser,

smaller, or heavier; also those which do that with a part of

themselves and with a part do the opposite, dividing in such a way

that one portion thickens while the other grows thinner, like milk

when it divides into whey and curd. Oil by itself is affected in

none of these ways, and therefore cannot be said to admit of

'boiling'. Such then is the pfcies of concoction known as 'boiling',

and the process is the same in an artificial and in a natural

instrument, for the cause will be the same in every case.

Imperfect boiling is the form of inconcoction opposed to boiling.

Now the opposite of boiling properly so called is an inconcoction of

the undetermined matter in a body due to lack of heat in the

surrounding liquid. (Lack of heat implies, as we have pointed out, the

presence of cold.) The motion which causes imperfect boiling is

different from that which causes boiling, for the heat which

operates the concoction is driven out. The lack of heat is due

either to the amount of cold in the liquid or to the quantity of

moisture in the object undergoing the process of boiling. Where either

of these conditions is realized the heat in the surrounding liquid

is too great to have no effect at all, but too small to carry out

the process of concocting uniformly and thoroughly. Hence things are

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