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harder when they are imperfectly boiled than when they are boiled, and

the moisture in them more distinct from the solid parts. So much for

the definition and causes of boiling and imperfect boiling.

Broiling is concoction by dry foreign heat. Hence if a man were to

boil a thing but the change and concoction in it were due, not to

the heat of the liquid but to that of the fire, the thing will have

been broiled and not boiled when the process has been carried to

completion: if the process has gone too far we use the word 'scorched'

to describe it. If the process leaves the thing drier at the end the

agent has been dry heat. Hence the outside is drier than the inside,

the opposite being true of things boiled. Where the process is

artificial, broiling is more difficult than boiling, for it is

difficult to heat the inside and the outside uniformly, since the

parts nearer to the fire are the first to get dry and consequently get

more intensely dry. In this way the outer pores contract and the

moisture in the thing cannot be secreted but is shut in by the closing

of the pores. Now broiling and boiling are artificial processes, but

the same general kind of thing, as we said, is found in nature too.

The affections produced are similar though they lack a name; for art

imitates nature. For instance, the concoction of food in the body is

like boiling, for it takes place in a hot and moist medium and the

agent is the heat of the body. So, too, certain forms of indigestion

are like imperfect boiling. And it is not true that animals are

generated in the concoction of food, as some say. Really they are

generated in the excretion which putrefies in the lower belly, and

they ascend afterwards. For concoction goes on in the upper belly

but the excretion putrefies in the lower: the reason for this has been

explained elsewhere.

We have seen that the opposite of boiling is imperfect boiling:

now there is something correspondingly opposed to the species of

concoction called broiling, but it is more difficult to find a name

for it. It would be the kind of thing that would happen if there

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