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were imperfect broiling instead of broiling proper through lack of

heat due to deficiency in the external fire or to the quantity of

water in the thing undergoing the process. For then we should get

too much heat for no effect to be produced, but too little for

concoction to take place.

We have now explained concoction and inconcoction, ripening and

rawness, boiling and broiling, and their opposites.


We must now describe the forms taken by the passive qualities the

moist and the dry. The elements of bodies, that is, the passive

ones, are the moist and the dry; the bodies themselves are

compounded of them and whichever predominates determines the nature of

the body; thus some bodies partake more of the dry, others of the

moist. All the forms to be described will exist either actually, or

potentially and in their opposite: for instance, there is actual

melting and on the other hand that which admits of being melted.

Since the moist is easily determined and the dry determined with

difficulty, their relation to one another is like that of a dish and

its condiments. The moist is what makes the dry determinable, and each

serves as a sort of glue to the other-as Empedocles said in his poem

on Nature, 'glueing meal together by means of water.' Thus the

determined body involves them both. Of the elements earth is

especially representative of the dry, water of the moist, and

therefore all determinate bodies in our world involve earth and water.

Every body shows the quality of that element which predominates in it.

It is because earth and water are the material elements of all

bodies that animals live in them alone and not in air or fire.

Of the qualities of bodies hardness and softness are those which

must primarily belong to a determined thing, for anything made up of

the dry and the moist is necessarily either hard or soft. Hard is that

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