were imperfect broiling instead of broiling proper through lack of
heat due to deficiency in the external fire or to the quantity of
water in the thing undergoing the process. For then we should get
too much heat for no effect to be produced, but too little for
concoction to take place.
We have now explained concoction and inconcoction, ripening and
rawness, boiling and broiling, and their opposites.
We must now describe the forms taken by the passive qualities the
moist and the dry. The elements of bodies, that is, the passive
ones, are the moist and the dry; the bodies themselves are
compounded of them and whichever predominates determines the nature of
the body; thus some bodies partake more of the dry, others of the
moist. All the forms to be described will exist either actually, or
potentially and in their opposite: for instance, there is actual
melting and on the other hand that which admits of being melted.
Since the moist is easily determined and the dry determined with
difficulty, their relation to one another is like that of a dish and
its condiments. The moist is what makes the dry determinable, and each
serves as a sort of glue to the other-as Empedocles said in his poem
on Nature, 'glueing meal together by means of water.' Thus the
determined body involves them both. Of the elements earth is
especially representative of the dry, water of the moist, and
therefore all determinate bodies in our world involve earth and water.
Every body shows the quality of that element which predominates in it.
It is because earth and water are the material elements of all
bodies that animals live in them alone and not in air or fire.
Of the qualities of bodies hardness and softness are those which
must primarily belong to a determined thing, for anything made up of
the dry and the moist is necessarily either hard or soft. Hard is that