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stone and potter's clay must contain more earth.

The nature of oil presents the greatest problem. If water

preponderated in it, cold ought to solidify it; if earth

preponderated, then fire ought to do so. Actually neither

solidifies, but both thicken it. The reason is that it is full of

air (hence it floats on the top of water, since air tends to rise).

Cold thickens it by turning the air in it into water, for any

mixture of oil and water is thicker than either. Fire and the lapse of

time thicken and whiten it. The whitening follows on the evaporation

of any water that may have been in it; the is due to the change of the

air into water as the heat in the oil is dissipated. The effect in

both cases is the same and the cause is the same, but the manner of

its operation is different. Both heat and cold thicken it, but neither

dries it (neither the sun nor cold dries oil), not only because it

is glutinous but because it contains air. Its glutinous nature

prevents it from giving off vapour and so fire does not dry it or boil

it off.

Those bodies which are made up of earth and water may be

classified according to the preponderance of either. There is a kind

of wine, for instance, which both solidifies and thickens by boiling-I

mean, must. All bodies of this kind lose their water as they That it

is their water may be seen from the fact that the vapour from them

condenses into water when collected. So wherever some sediment is left

this is of the nature of earth. Some of these bodies, as we have said,

are also thickened and dried by cold. For cold not only solidifies but

also dries water, and thickens things by turning air into water.

(Solidifying, as we have said, is a form of drying.) Now those

things that are not thickened by cold, but solidified, belong rather

to water, e.g.. wine, urine, vinegar, lye, whey. But those things that

are thickened (not by evaporation due to fire) are made up either of

earth or of water and air: honey of earth, while oil contains air.

Milk and blood, too, are made up of both water and earth, though earth

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