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Works by Aristotle
Pages of Meteorology

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by the water, but earth has also pores which do not connect and is

therefore differently affected according as the water enters by one or

the other set of pores.)

Some bodies can be bent or straightened, like the reed or the withy,

some cannot, like pottery and stone. Those bodies are apt to be bent

and straightened which can change from being curved to being

straight and from being straight to being curved, and bending and

straightening consist in the change or motion to the straight or to

a curve, for a thing is said to be in process of being bent whether it

is being made to assume a convex or a concave shape. So bending is

defined as motion to the convex or the concave without a change of

length. For if we added 'or to the straight', we should have a thing

bent and straight at once, and it is impossible for that which is

straight to be bent. And if all bending is a bending back or a bending

down, the former being a change to the convex, the latter to the

concave, a motion that leads to the straight cannot be called bending,

but bending and straightening are two different things. These, then,

are the things that can, and those that cannot be bent, and be


Some things can be both broken and comminuted, others admit only one

or the other. Wood, for instance, can be broken but not comminuted,

ice and stone can be comminuted but not broken, while pottery may

either be comminuted or broken. The distinction is this: breaking is a

division and separation into large parts, comminution into parts of

any size, but there must be more of them than two. Now those solids

that have many pores not communicating with one another are

comminuible (for the limit to their subdivision is set by the

pores), but those whose pores stretch continuously for a long way

are breakable, while those which have pores of both kinds are both

comminuible and breakable.

Some things, e.g. copper and wax, are impressible, others, e.g.

pottery and water, are not. The process of being impressed is the

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