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be hot there is fire. This is why flame is burning smoke or dry

exhalation. The fumes of wood are smoke, those of wax and frankincense

and such-like, and pitch and whatever contains pitch or such-like

are sooty smoke, while the fumes of oil and oily substances are a

greasy steam; so are those of all substances which are not at all

combustible by themselves because there is too little of the dry in

them (the dry being the means by which the transition to fire is

effected), but burn very readily in conjunction with something else.

(For the fat is just the conjunction of the oily with the dry.) So

those bodies that give off fumes, like oil and pitch, belong rather to

the moist, but those that burn to the dry.


Homogeneous bodies differ to touch-by these affections and

differences, as we have said. They also differ in respect of their

smell, taste, and colour.

By homogeneous bodies I mean, for instance, 'metals', gold,

copper, silver, tin, iron, stone, and everything else of this kind and

the bodies that are extracted from them; also the substances found

in animals and plants, for instance, flesh, bones, sinew, skin,

viscera, hair, fibres, veins (these are the elements of which the

non-homogeneous bodies like the face, a hand, a foot, and everything

of that kind are made up), and in plants, wood, bark, leaves, roots,

and the rest like them.

The homogeneous bodies, it is true, are constituted by a different

cause, but the matter of which they are composed is the dry and the

moist, that is, water and earth (for these bodies exhibit those

qualities most clearly). The agents are the hot and the cold, for they

constitute and make concrete the homogeneous bodies out of earth and

water as matter. Let us consider, then, which of the homogeneous

bodies are made of earth and which of water, and which of both.

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