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Of organized bodies some are liquid, some soft, some hard. The

soft and the hard are constituted by a process of solidification, as

we have already explained.

Those liquids that go off in vapour are made of water, those that do

not are either of the nature of earth, or a mixture either of earth

and water, like milk, or of earth and air, like wood, or of water

and air, like oil. Those liquids which are thickened by heat are a

mixture. (Wine is a liquid which raises a difficulty: for it is both

liable to evaporation and it also thickens; for instance new wine

does. The reason is that the word 'wine' is ambiguous and different

'wines' behave in different ways. New wine is more earthy than old,

and for this reason it is more apt to be thickened by heat and less

apt to be congealed by cold. For it contains much heat and a great

proportion of earth, as in Arcadia, where it is so dried up in its

skins by the smoke that you scrape it to drink. If all wine has some

sediment in it then it will belong to earth or to water according to

the quantity of the sediment it possesses.) The liquids that are

thickened by cold are of the nature of earth; those that are thickened

either by heat or by cold consist of more than one element, like oil

and honey, and 'sweet wine'.

Of solid bodies those that have been solidified by cold are of

water, e.g. ice, snow, hail, hoar-frost. Those solidified by heat

are of earth, e.g. pottery, cheese, natron, salt. Some bodies are

solidified by both heat and cold. Of this kind are those solidified by

refrigeration, that is by the privation both of heat and of the

moisture which departs with the heat. For salt and the bodies that are

purely of earth solidify by the privation of moisture only, ice by

that of heat only, these bodies by that of both. So both the active

qualities and both kinds of matter were involved in the process. Of

these bodies those from which all the moisture has gone are all of

them of earth, like pottery or amber. (For amber, also, and the bodies

called 'tears' are formed by refrigeration, like myrrh,

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